Purpose: This study aimed to compare awake bruxism events between subjective and objective evaluations using a questionnaire survey and a modified portable electromyography (EMG) device, and to examine correlations between sleep quality and awake bruxism.
Methods: The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and awareness of awake bruxism as clarified via interviews were conducted on 34 participants as subjective evaluations. The EMG device was used to record left temporal muscle activity for 6.5 h (from 09:00 to 15:30) and the number of awake bruxism episodes per hour. The participants were then classified into “bruxer” and “non-bruxer” groups based on the number of awake bruxism episodes.
Results: The mean number of awake bruxism episodes per hour was 33.6 ± 21.4, and 23% of the participants who reported having no awareness of awake bruxism in the interviews were defined as “bruxers” in the objective evaluations. In the bruxer group, positive correlations were found between the number of awake bruxism episodes and both ESS and PSQI scores.
Conclusion: These findings suggest that objective measurements using a portable EMG device can increase the diagnostic accuracy for awake bruxism, and that sleep quality is a major risk factor for awake bruxism.