Journal of Pesticide Science
Online ISSN : 1349-0923
Print ISSN : 1348-589X
ISSN-L : 0385-1559

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Estimating the proportion of resistance alleles from bulk Sanger sequencing, circumventing the variability of individual DNA
Masaaki SudoKohji Yamamura Shoji SonodaTakehiko Yamanaka
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JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS Advance online publication
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Article ID: D20-064


Specimens should be examined as much as possible to obtain a precise estimate of the proportion of resistance alleles in agricultural fields. Monitoring traps that use semiochemicals on sticky sheets are helpful in this regard. However, insects captured by such traps are ordinarily left in the field until collection. Owing to DNA degradation, the amount of DNA greatly varies among insects, causing serious problems in obtaining maximum likelihood estimates and confidence intervals of the proportion of the resistance alleles. We propose a statistical procedure that can circumvent this degradation issue. R scripts for the calculation are provided for readers. We also propose the utilization of a Sanger sequencer. We demonstrate these procedures using field samples of diamide-resistant strains of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). The validity of the assumptions used in the statistical analysis is examined using the same data.

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© Pesticide Science Society of Japan 2021. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) License (

This article is licensed under a Creative Commons [Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International] license.