Journal of Pesticide Science
Online ISSN : 1349-0923
Print ISSN : 1348-589X
ISSN-L : 0385-1559
Current issue
Displaying 1-10 of 10 articles from this issue
Review
  • Takeo Ohkouchi, Kozo Tsuji
    2022 Volume 47 Issue 4 Pages 155-171
    Published: November 20, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: November 20, 2022
    Advance online publication: November 18, 2022
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    Recent requirements of the pesticide industry have become much severer, and pesticides (formulated products) are required to satisfy higher safety to both human beings and the environment, higher biological efficacy, lower price, and labor-saving. This review explains the outline of basic pesticide formulation technology, followed by recent advances in developing new formulations and application technologies. Labor-saving formulations and application technologies, environmental load reduction technologies, and user-friendly formulations and application technologies are elucidated.

Regular Articles
  • Sheng-Chi Chu, Kuo-Hsi Lin, Tsung-Chun Lin, Chinnapan Thanarut, Wen-Hs ...
    2022 Volume 47 Issue 4 Pages 172-183
    Published: November 20, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: November 20, 2022
    Advance online publication: November 10, 2022
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    Supplementary material

    Colletotrichum gloeosporioides species complex (CGSC) is the major pathogen causing strawberry anthracnose in Taiwan. Benzimidazoles and strobilurins are common fungicides used to control strawberry anthracnose. A total of 108 CGSC isolates were collected from five major strawberry-producing areas in Taiwan. The half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) values of most CGSC isolates for benomyl (59 isolates), carbendazim (70 isolates), and thiabendazole (63 isolates) were higher than 500 µg a.i./mL. Strobilurin tests showed that the EC50 values of most CGSC isolates for azoxystrobin (66 isolates), kresoxim-methyl (42 isolates), and trifloxystrobin (56 isolates) were higher than 500 µg a.i./mL. However, most CGSC isolates were sensitive to pyraclostrobin at 100 µg a.i./mL. Fungicide tests indicated that CGSC isolates show multi-resistance to benzimidazoles and strobilurins. Benzimidazole-resistant isolates were associated with a point mutation in codon 198 of the β-tubulin gene, and strobilurin-resistant isolates did not correspond with mutation in the cyt b gene or alternative oxidase activity.

  • Chia-Chi Wang, Shan-Shan Wang, Chun-Lin Liao, Wei-Ren Tsai, Chun-Wei T ...
    2022 Volume 47 Issue 4 Pages 184-189
    Published: November 20, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: November 20, 2022
    Advance online publication: November 01, 2022
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    Supplementary material

    Adverse outcome pathway (AOP)-based computational models provide state-of-the-art prediction for human skin sensitizers and are promising alternatives to animal testing. However, little is known about their applicability to pesticides due to scarce pesticide data for evaluation. Moreover, pesticides traditionally have been tested on animals without human data, making validation difficult. Direct application of AOP-based models to pesticides may be inappropriate since their original applicability domains were designed to maximize reliability for human response prediction on diverse chemicals but not pesticides. This study proposed to identify a consensus chemical space with concordant human responses predicted by the SkinSensPred online tool and animal testing data to reduce animal testing. The identified consensus chemical space for non-sensitizers achieved high concordance of 85% and 100% for the cross-validation and independent test, respectively. The reconfigured SkinSensPred can be applied as the first-tier tool for identifying non-sensitizers to reduce. animal testing for pesticides by 19.6%.

  • Norikazu Higashimura, Akira Hamada, Toshiaki Ohara, Seiya Sakurai, Hir ...
    2022 Volume 47 Issue 4 Pages 190-196
    Published: November 20, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: November 20, 2022
    Advance online publication: November 18, 2022
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    Supplementary material

    The target site of the novel fungicide quinofumelin was investigated in the rice blast fungus Pyricularia oryzae. Quinofumelin-induced mycelial growth inhibition was reversed by orotate but not by dihydroorotate. Recovery tests suggested that the target site of quinofumelin was dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH), which catalyzes the oxidation of dihydroorotate to orotate. Quinofumelin strongly inhibited P. oryzae class 2 DHODH (DHODH II) (IC50: 2.8 nM). The inhibitory activities of mycelial growth and DHODH II were strongly positively correlated, indicating that DHODH II inhibition by quinofumelin lead to antifungal activity. A P. oryzae DHODH II gene (PoPYR4) disruption mutant (ΔPopyr4), showing the same tendency as the quinofumelin-treated wild strain in recovery tests, was constructed, and disease symptoms were not observed in rice plants infected by ΔPopyr4. Thus, DHODH II, which plays an important role in pathogenicity and mycelial growth, is found to be the target site of quinofumelin.

Brief Reports
  • Ikuo Takahashi, Hikaru Koishihara, Tadao Asami
    2022 Volume 47 Issue 4 Pages 197-202
    Published: November 20, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: November 20, 2022
    Advance online publication: September 14, 2022
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    The inhibitory effect of propiconazole on strigolactone (SL) production and Striga hermonthica emergence were evaluated using rice plants. A significant reduction in SL levels was detected in root and root exudates after rice was treated with different doses of propiconazole. Propiconazole induced second tiller bud outgrowth in rice seedlings. In accordance with the results of 4-deoxyorobanchol levels in root and root exudates, propiconazole-treated rice attenuated the degree of infestation of the root parasitic weed, S. hermonthica. Overall, these results suggest that propiconazole has potential as a plant growth regulator for agriculture and a new scaffold for developing potent inhibitors of SL production.

  • Keimei Oh, Kai Jiang
    2022 Volume 47 Issue 4 Pages 203-207
    Published: November 20, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: November 20, 2022
    Advance online publication: November 18, 2022
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    Supplementary material

    A fluorescent labeled pyrazole derivative with a dansyl moiety (EH-DF) was synthesized. Design of EH-DF was carried out by using a dansyl moiety to substitute the naphthalene moiety of the parent compound (EH-1). At a concentration of 30 µM, EH-DF displayed biological activity on inducing a triple response in Arabidopsis seedlings. Compared with the non-chemical treated control, the hypocotyl length of EH-DF-treated Arabidopsis seedlings was reduced from approximately 9.2±0.7 mm to 2.4±0.2 mm. The length of the roots was reduced from 1.7±0.1 mm to 1.0±0.1 mm, and the curvature of the hook of Arabidopsis seedlings increased from 60±16 degrees to 245±35 degrees. The maxim excitation wavelength and emission wavelength of EH-DF were 350 and 535 nm, respectively. Data obtained via fluorescent microscope analysis indicated that intensive fluorescent signals of EH-DF were observed in the shoot of Arabidopsis seedlings.

Technical Report
  • Daisuke Hayasaka, Masayoshi K. Hiraiwa, Yu Maebara, Yugo Seko
    2022 Volume 47 Issue 4 Pages 208-212
    Published: November 20, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: November 20, 2022
    Advance online publication: November 11, 2022
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    Slow-acting fipronil is one of the best components for controlling invasive ants. However, its efficacy against invasive Lepisiota frauenfeldi, which recently invaded Japan, remains unclear. Here, its acute toxicity to Le. frauenfeldi was assessed, and its lethal concentrations were compared with those against other invasive ants (Linepithema humile and Solenopsis invicta). The LC10 and LC50 values of fipronil for Le. frauenfeldi were significantly lower than the previously reported values for Li. humile and/or S. invicta, and its LC90 value against Le. frauenfeldi was in the same range as that required for Li. humile extermination. Additionally, Le. frauenfeldi can be more sensitive to fipronil than non-target arthropods. Therefore, recent fipronil-based Li. humile and S. invicta eradication/control programs may be effective against Le. frauenfeldi as well. Moreover, applying fipronil at dosages appropriate for Le. frauenfeldi would lead to effective Le. frauenfeldi extermination/control with low damage to other native species/ants.

Contents and Indexes
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