The Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine
Online ISSN : 2186-8123
Print ISSN : 2186-8131
ISSN-L : 2186-8131
Regular Article
Combined association of cardiorespiratory fitness and muscle mass with prevalence of diabetes mellitus: WASEDA’S Health Study
Ryoko KawakamiDong WangSusumu S. SawadaKumpei TanisawaHiroki TabataTomoko ItoChiyoko UsuiKaori IshiiSuguru ToriiMitsuru HiguchiKatsuhiko SuzukiShizuo SakamotoKoichiro Oka
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2022 Volume 11 Issue 3 Pages 189-195


Although cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and muscle mass (MM) are inversely associated with the risk of diabetes mellitus (DM), the effect of the combination of CRF and MM is unclear. We examined the combined association of CRF and MM with DM prevalence. This cross-sectional study included 1,271 middle-aged and older adults. CRF was measured at peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) using a cycle ergometer. Appendicular skeletal MM (ASM)/height2 was assessed using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Participants were divided into two groups through the median of CRF or MM by age group and gender, respectively. DM was determined using a self-reported questionnaire and fasting blood tests. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for DM prevalence were estimated using a logistic regression model. In total, 61 participants had DM. A weak positive correlation between VO2peak and ASM/height2 was observed (r = 0.24). Compared to lower CRF or MM group, the OR (95% confidence interval) was 0.52 (0.28–0.96) or 0.47 (0.23–0.97) for the higher CRF or MM group, respectively. After further adjustment of ASM/height2 for the CRF category or VO2peak for the MM category, the association of CRF or MM was found to be slightly attenuated. Compared to lower CRF with lower MM group, ORs were 0.45 (0.19–1.08) for lower CRF with higher MM group, 0.49 (0.22–1.10) for higher CRF with lower MM group, and 0.29 (0.12–0.73) for higher CRF with higher MM group. In conclusion, both higher CRF and MM were associated with lower DM prevalence compared to both lower CRF and MM.

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