The Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine
Online ISSN : 2186-8123
Print ISSN : 2186-8131
ISSN-L : 2186-8131
Regular Article
Relationship between peer group size and active outdoor play in children aged 9–12 years
Kazuya TamuraYuya UedaTakashi SaitoRyo GotoNaoki YamadaKiyomasa NakatsukaKazuaki UchidaKana HoribeKenta SaekiHaruhi EnchoMasato TezukaMao MukaijoRei Ono
Author information

2023 Volume 12 Issue 5 Pages 133-139


Outdoor play during childhood is vital for physical, cognitive, and social development. Outdoor play is influenced by friends, though the relationship between outdoor play and the number of close friends is not clear. This study aimed to investigate the association between peer group size and outdoor play among children aged 9–12 years. This study was cross-sectional in design. We recruited fourth- to sixth-grade children from two public elementary schools. Outdoor play contents and duration on weekdays were collected via a questionnaire, and the total duration of outdoor play on five weekdays was calculated. We asked the children to nominate up to 10 of their closest friends. We calculated the peer group size as the total number of reciprocal closest friends for each child. A multivariate linear regression analysis was conducted to investigate the association between peer group size and outdoor play duration, adjusted for gender, grade, school, body mass index, sports club participation, and screen time. This study included 291 children (137 girls, mean age: 10.6 ± 1.0 years). The peer group size was associated with outdoor play duration after adjusting for confounding factors (β: 0.18, 95% CI: 0.07-0.30). This study revealed that children aged 9–12 years, with larger peer group size showed a significantly longer duration of outdoor play.

Content from these authors
© 2023 The Japanese Society of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine

This article is licensed under a Creative Commons [Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International] license.
Previous article Next article