2015 年 4 巻 1 号 p. 83-91
The variable effects of mechanical stimuli induced by exercise on the human body are becoming better understood. Additionally, the indispensable effect of constant gravity on the human body to construct and maintain living organisms is known from observed muscle and bone regression induced by long-term recumbency or visits to gravity-free environments, such as space. Based on reactions of the body, cells faced with various inputs largely depend on gene expression, biochemical processes, or both. Thus, it is easy to imagine that physical input can be converted into a chemical process. The conversion process that changes physical forces (mechanical stimuli) into chemical reactions in a cell is called mechanotransduction. A growing number of studies examining mechanotransduction have led to a new phase in the understanding of exercise-induced effects on organisms.