The Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine
Online ISSN : 2186-8123
Print ISSN : 2186-8131
ISSN-L : 2186-8131
Review Article
Training-induced changes in architecture of human skeletal muscles: Current evidence and unresolved issues
Ryoichi EmaRyota AkagiTaku WakaharaYasuo Kawakami
Author information

2016 Volume 5 Issue 1 Pages 37-46


The present review summarizes current evidence and unresolved issues regarding training-induced changes in the architecture of human skeletal muscles. As architectural parameters, we focused on the fascicle length and pennation angle, which are related to force-generating capability of pennate muscles. Cross-sectional studies in sport athletes suggested changes in both the parameters following chronic sport-specific activities. Longitudinal training intervention experiments indicated direct evidence of the plasticity of the two parameters induced by resistance training, but no consensus has been reached regarding the factors influencing those changes. Considering the importance of fascicle arrangement on muscle function, future studies are required to explain the underpinning mechanisms of the adaptation.

Content from these authors
© 2016 The Japanese Society of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine
Previous article Next article