2020 Volume 64 Issue 3 Pages 243-249
Purpose: Masticatory changes in the older adult population may cause nutritional impairment, so epidemiological studies are important to allow specific public health interventions. Thus, this study aims at constructing and validating an instrument for screening for masticatory disorders in older adults (SMDOA).
Methods: Validation study. First step: validity evidence based on test content. Defining the construct and elaborating the questions by a panel of experts and evaluating the representativeness and relevance of the items in relation to the construct by a committee of 28 experts. Analysis was performed through the Content Validity Index for Items (CVI-I) and the Content Validity Index (CVI). Second stage: validity evidence based on response processes. The questionnaire was applied to 40 older adults (≥60 years) using the cognitive interview strategy. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of the responses was carried out. Third stage: validity evidence based on the internal structure. The instrument was applied to 295 older adult patients and a confirmatory factorial analysis was performed to fit the model.
Results: The first version of SMDOA consisted of 16 issues related to chewing. The CVI and CVI-I were satisfactory, and only one question was excluded. The instrument with 15 questions was well evaluated by the older adults, only requiring minor adjustments to the morphosyntax. After the confirmatory factorial analysis, adjustments were made in its internal structure resulting in the 9-question model in two factors regarding function and masticatory perception.
Conclusions: The SMDOA presented good evidence of validity in its content, response processes and internal structure.
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