Article ID: 2016-158
DNA methylation in transcriptional regulatory regions is crucial for gene expression. The DNA methylation status of the edges of CpG islands, called CpG island shore, is involved in tissue/cell-type-specific gene expression. Haploinsufficiency diseases are caused by inheritance of one mutated null allele and are classified as autosomal dominant. However, in the same pedigree, phenotypic variances are observed despite the inheritance of the identical mutated null allele, including FBN1, which is responsible for development of the haploinsufficient Marfan disease. In this study, we examined the relationship between gene expression and DNA methylation patterns of the FBN1 CpG island shore focusing on transcriptionally active hypomethylated alleles (Hypo-alleles). No difference in the DNA methylation level of FBN1 CpG island shore was observed in porcine fetal fibroblast (PFF) and the liver, whereas FBN1 expression was higher in PFF than in the liver. However, Hypo-allele ratio of the FBN1 CpG island shore in PFF was higher than that in the liver, indicating that Hypo-allele ratio of the FBN1 CpG island shore likely correlated with FBN1 expression level. In addition, oocyte-derived DNA hypermethylation in preimplantation embryos was erased until the blastocyst stage, and re-methylation of the FBN1 CpG island shore was observed with prolonged in vitro culture of blastocysts. These results suggest that the establishment of the DNA methylation pattern within the FBN1 CpG island shore occurs after the blastocyst stage, likely during organogenesis. In conclusion, Hypo-allele ratios of the FBN1 CpG island shore correlated with FBN1 expression levels in porcine tissues.