Article ID: 2021-006
Immune imbalance of Treg/Th17 cells may contribute to recurrent implantation failure (RIF) during in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET). In this study, we sought to determine the effect of intrauterine administration of mouse PBMCs prior to embryo implantation on endometrial receptivity and embryo implantation, and examine the underlying mechanism of Treg/Th17 cell balance following intrauterine administration of PBMCs. Pregnant mice were randomly divided into three groups: control group, embryo implantation dysfunction (EID) group, and EID with PBMCs group, and the number of embryo implantation sites was recorded during early pregnancy (Pd7.5). The balance of Treg/Th17 cells in the peripheral blood, spleen, and local implantation sites was detected during the peri-implantation period (Pd4.0) and early pregnancy (Pd7.5). The EID group demonstrated a significant decrease in the number of embryo implantation sites, while the EID with PBMCs group demonstrated higher number of embryo implantation sites compared to the EID group. The balance of Treg/Th17 cells in the peripheral blood and spleen tissues was not significantly different between the aforementioned groups. However, the local uterine ratio of the Treg/Th17 cells increased in the EID with PBMCs group compared to that in the EID group. Collectively, we found that intrauterine administration of PBMCs prior to embryo implantation effectively promotes embryo implantation rates. This may be attributed to the improvement in the local immune balance of Treg and Th17 cells compared with the overall immune balance.