Prevention research has achieved greater applicability in the U.S. since the early 1980s, and both theories and practices of prevention have been advanced. In contrast, relatively little attention has been paid to the development of prevention research in Japanese contexts. The main purpose of this paper is to review the relevant literature in prevention research, as developed in the U.S., which focuses on the prevention of youth psychological maladjustment and problem behaviors and the promotion of well-being for the population as a whole. Based on theoretical frameworks that use epidemiological and developmental models, four prevention models are reviewed: The Risk Reduction Model, the Risk Protective Model, the Resilience Model, and the Positive Youth Development Model. Further, given the importance of integrating science into practice, the Community Partnership Model is also reviewed as it provides a context for implementation of intervention practices based on prevention research.