2022 Volume 62 Issue 2 Pages 60-72
Castleman disease consists of several lymphoproliferative subtypes that share some histological features in the lymph nodes. On the other hand, numerous clinical findings and etiologies make the disease challenging to understand. The origin of the disease is the hyaline vascular-type unicentric Castleman disease (UCD), first reported by Benjamin Castleman et al. in 1954. Although UCD is characterized by localized lesions and lack of symptoms, multicentric Castleman disease (MCD) with multiple lesions and systemic symptoms was reported by Frizzera in 1983. MCD is further divided according to KSHV/HHV8 infection status. In KSHV/HHV8-related MCD, viral infection signals lead to excessive cytokine production, and cause clinical and pathologic abnormalities. Some cases of plasma cell-type KSHV/HHV8-negative MCD can be found in association with POEMS syndrome (polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, M-proteins, and skin changes), which is a paraneoplastic syndrome. The others are idiopathic MCD, which are currently considered a heterogeneous group of diseases with overlapping pathological and clinical features. In this article, we summarize the historical evolution of Castleman disease to help understand the disease concept. We also review the latest ideas and definitions of the subtypes within the MCD spectrum and summarize the histopathological findings.