Stoke is one of the leading cause of death in the world. Although the mortality rate after stroke decreased, there are increasing number of patients who needs daily life support after stroke. The Hisayama study demonstrated the recurrence rate of ischemic stroke was 49.7% in ten years after first ever stroke. In addition to the traditional risk factors for stroke recurrence such as age, hypertension, diabetes, smoking, there are increasing evidence the another potential risk factors including infection, insulin resistance, visceral fat, gut dysbiosis, air pollution. These potential risk factors are associate with systemic chronic inflammation that promote artherosclerosis and myocardial injury that result in recurrence of stroke. Cognitive decline is one of the critical problems after stroke. Alzheimer's pathology is frequently related to the onset of dementia after stroke and recurrence of stroke is significant risk for the dementia. The strategy to attenuate the recurrence of stroke is also effective to reduce post stroke dementia. The use of antithrombotics is main treatment for the secondary prevention. Furthermore, strict risk factor control is also able to reduce the risk of stroke recurrence. One of the long term observational study demonstrated both antithrombotic treatment and the strict risk factor control attenuated cognitive decline after stroke. We discussed these topics of chronic stage of ischemic stroke in this section.