High-intensity interval exercise leads to greater improvements in the vascular endothelial function than continuous exercise at moderate intensity. However, few studies have been performed on the effects of repetition exercise consisting of high-intensity exercise followed by complete rest on the arterial function. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of repetition exercise on the vascular endothelial function determined by flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD). Eleven healthy male subjects completed two exercise sessions on a cycle ergometer in a counterbalanced order. The exercise sessions were 20 min cycling at 50% maximal work rate (Wmax) (continuous exercise, CE) and 20 × 20-sec intervals at 100%Wmax interspersed with 40-sec intervals at complete rest (repetition exercise, RE). Before and after each protocol, the brachial systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured in the supine position. Relative FMD was assessed at rest and 30 and 60 min after each exercise regimen, and then the normalized FMD (nFMD) was calculated from the peak shear rate. The FMD significantly increased 30 min after RE (8.2 ± 1.5% to 11.5 ± 3.1%, p<0.01) and non-significantly increased 30 min after CE (7.5 ± 1.6% to 8.1 ± 2.1%, n.s.) before returning to baseline at 60 min after both exercise regimens. The FMD value at 30 min after RE was significantly greater than that at 30 min after CE (p<0.01). The nFMD (a.u.) significantly increased 30 min after RE (1.38 ± 0.64 to 2.00 ± 0.94, p<0.05) and non-significantly increased 30 min after CE (1.20 ± 0.54 to 1.49 ± 0.57, n.s.) before returning to baseline at 60 min after both exercise regimens. These results suggest that repetition exercise may lead to an acute improvement in the vascular endothelial function.