2010 Volume 15 Issue 2 Pages 228-236
This study's aim was to examine symptoms and comorbid somatic complaints of depression for a large sample representative of the Japanese general population. The survey conducted in June 2000 gathered a total of 19,850 responses from individuals aged 20 years or older (males=9,685 females=10,165), which were analyzed using The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) to assess the prevalence of depression with two different cut-off points; 16 (CES-D16 depression) and 26 (CES-D26 depression). Somatic complaints were assessed by 9 questions asking about the presence of headache, dizziness, palpitation, epigastric discomfort, constipation/diarrhea, stiff shoulder, back pain, fatigue and difficulty recovering from fatigue. The total CES-D score was significantly higher in females than in males. The scores for appetite loss, sleeplessness, inhibition, depressive mood, and sadness were higher in females compared to males. Prevalence of CES-D16 depression and CES-D26 depression was 29.6% and 6.7%, respectively, both significantly higher in females. Somatic complaints were significantly more frequent in females compared to males. Logistic regression analyses conducted independently for males and females revealed that significant positive correlations between somatic complaints and CES-D26 depression. It was noted that the odds ratios were higher in males than in females, suggesting that somatic complaints in males were more likely to indicate the presence of depression in comparison with females.