2022 Volume 54 Issue 1 Pages 193-200
Forty-four cases of sexual behaviors toward substitute objects (SBTSOs) were observed at four breeding sites and five wintering sites of the Black-winged Stilt Himantopus himantopus himantopus. Although the actions were observed throughout the year, most were observed in the early breeding season. They were performed on clods, reed stems, plastic bags, a wooden stick, a beverage can, and a tennis ball. In total, one adult male, three young individuals still dependent on their parents, and 40 young independent individuals performed these behaviors. All SBTSOs were typical of male sexual behavior. Although only three young individuals were identified as male, the other young were presumed to be males. I suggest the adaptive value of these behaviors in the Black-winged Stilt.