Volume 15 (2016) Issue 2 Pages 193-202
Purpose: Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved prospective study was conducted to test whether objective and quantitative hemodynamic markers wall shear stress (WSS) and oscillatory shear index (OSI) measured by three-dimensional (3D) cine phase-contrast (PC) can reflect pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH).
Patients and Methods: Seventeen consecutive patients of suspected secondary PAH were examined for pulmonary artery pressures (PAPs) with right heart catheterization (RHC) and three-dimensional (3D) cine PC MR. Based on the RHC data, patients were subdivided into two groups of 12 non-PAH (median age of 74.5 years) and 5 PAH (median age of 77 years) patients. Based on 3D cine PC magnetic resonance (MR), hemodynamic parameters including spatially averaged systolic WSS (sWSS), diastolic WSS (dWSS), mean WSS (mWSS), OSI and blood vessel section area (BVSA) at the pulmonary arterial trunk were calculated. Streamline images in the pulmonary arteries were also assessed. All the parameters were compared between non-PAH and PAH groups.
Results: sWSS (N/m2) and mWSS (N/m2) of PAH group was lower than that of non-PAH group (0.594 ± 0.067 vs. 0.961 ± 0.590, P = 0.001), (0.365 ± 0.035 vs. 0.489 ± 0.132, P = 0.027). OSI of PAH group was higher than that of non-PAH (0.214 ± 0.026 vs. 0.130 ± 0.046, P = 0.001). sWSS, mWSS, and dWSS were inversely correlated and OSI was positively correlated to mean PAP or systolic PAP with r values of −0.638 (P = 0.005), −0.643 (P = 0.005), −0.485 (P = 0.049), and 0.625 (P = 0.007); or −0.622 (P = 0.008), −0.629 (P = 0.007), −0.484 (P = 0.049), and 0.594 (P = 0.012), respectively. sWSS was also inversely correlated to BVSA with r value of −0.488 (P = 0.049), and OSI was correlated to BVSA with r value of 0.574 (P = 0.016). Vortex or helical flows were observed more frequently in PAH patients.
Conclusions: The low sWSS and mWSS as well as high OSI measured with 3D cine PC MR could be potential hemodynamic markers for the increased PAP in suspected secondary PAH patients.