2020 年 19 巻 3 号 p. 235-246
Purpose: To characterize the non-laminar flow dynamics and resultant decreased wall shear stress (WSS) and high oscillatory shear index (OSI) of the infrarenal abdominal aortic dilatation, cardiac phase-resolved 3D phase-contrast MRI (4D-flow MRI) was performed.
Methods: The prospective single-arm study was approved by the Institutional Review Board and included 18 subjects (median 67.5 years) with the dilated infrarenal aorta (median diameter 35 mm). 4D-flow MRI was conducted on a 1.5T MRI system. On 3D streamline images, laminar and non-laminar (i.e., vortex or helical) flow patterns were visually assessed both for the dilated aorta and for the undilated upstream aorta. Cardiac phase-resolved flow velocities, WSS and OSI, were also measured for the dilated aorta and the upstream undilated aorta.
Results: Non-laminar flow represented by vortex or helical flow was more frequent and overt in the dilated aorta than in the undilated upstream aorta (P < 0.0156) with a very good interobserver agreement (weighted kappa: 0.82–1.0). The WSS was lower, and the OSI was higher on the dilated aortic wall compared with the proximal undilated segments. In mid-systole, mean spatially-averaged WSS was 0.20 ± 0.016 Pa for the dilated aorta vs. 0.68 ± 0.071 Pa for undilated upstream aorta (P < 0.0001), and OSI on the dilated aortic wall was 0.093 ± 0.010 vs. 0.041 ± 0.0089 (P = 0.013). The maximum values and the amplitudes of the WSS at the dilated aorta were inversely proportional to the ratio of dilated/undilated aortic diameter (r = −0.694, P = 0.0014).
Conclusion: 4D-flow can characterize abnormal non-laminar flow dynamics within the dilated aorta in vivo. The wall of the infrarenal aortic dilatation is continuously and increasingly affected by atherogenic stimuli due to the flow disturbances represented by vortex or helical flow, which is reflected by lower WSS and higher OSI.