Article ID: rev.2020-0007
Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is valuable for diagnosis and assessment of the severity of various myocardial diseases owing to its potential to visualize myocardial scars. T1 mapping is complementary to LGE because it can quantify the degree of myocardial fibrosis or edema. As such, T1-weighted imaging techniques, including LGE using an inversion recovery sequence, contribute to cardiac MRI. T2-weighted imaging is widely used to characterize the tissue of many organs. T2-weighted imaging is used in cardiac MRI to identify myocardial edema related to chest pain, acute myocardial diseases, or severe myocardial injuries. However, it is difficult to determine the presence and extent of myocardial edema because of the low contrast between normal and diseased myocardium and image artifacts of T2-weighted images and the lack of an established method to quantify the images. T2 mapping quantifies myocardial T2 values and help identify myocardial edema. The T2 values are significantly related to the clinical symptoms or severity of nonischemic cardiomyopathy. Texture analysis is a postprocessing method to quantify tissue alterations that are reflected in the T2-weighted images. Texture analysis provides a variety of parameters, such as skewness, entropy, and grey-scale non-uniformity, without the need for additional sequences. The abnormal signal intensity on T2-weighted images or T2 values may correspond to not only myocardial edema but also other tissue alterations. In this review, the techniques of cardiac T2 mapping and texture analysis and their clinical relevance are described.