Article ID: cr.2018-0275
The middle meningeal artery (MMA) is suggested to play an important role in the recurrence of chronic subdural hematomas (CSDHs). However, the exact mechanisms involved in the recurrence of CSDHs still remain unknown. For recurring CSDHs, MMA embolization is performed using low-concentration n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA) at our hospital. We report new findings and a discussion related to the mechanism of CSDH recurrence based on the imaging findings after MMA embolization, and cases that required craniotomy due to recurrence. The study included eight patients with recurrent CSDH, defined as ipsilateral hematoma re-enlargement within 3 months, and treated with MMA embolization. MMA embolization was performed successfully in all eight patients with no complications. Of the eight patients treated, one patient required craniotomy for the evacuation of CSDHs due to hematoma re-enlargement. NBCA casts were observed in the inner membrane of CSDHs in five of the eight patients by postoperative computed tomography scans. In the case that required craniotomy, the formation of neovasculatures was observed in the inner membrane of the CSDH. Our results suggested that angiogenesis also occurs in the septum and inner membrane through the MMA and the outer membrane of the CSDH. Additionally, these neovascular vessels may be involved in the recurrence of CSDH after MMA embolization. In a future larger study, it is necessary to elucidate in detail the vascular architecture of the CSDH membrane associated with the hematoma re-enlargement, and the effectiveness of MMA embolization that embolized to these peripheral neovascular vessels.