Spontaneous cervical internal carotid artery dissection (CICAD) is occasionally treated with conservative management, mainly using antithrombotics. However, we have to consider emergency interventions for bilateral CICAD occurring simultaneously and accompanied by progressive cerebral ischemia. A 46-year-old woman was brought to our hospital with a complaint of left-handed clumsiness, blurred vision in the left eye, and right hemiplegia. Acute cerebral infarction in bilateral cerebral hemispheres was evident on brain magnetic resonance imaging. Bilateral internal carotid arteries were barely visible on time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography. Subsequent cerebral angiography demonstrated that cervical internal carotid arteries on both sides were tapered off immediately after the bifurcations, indicating CICAD. Despite management with intravenous antithrombotic agents and hydration, neurological status gradually deteriorated. After insertion of a transvenous temporary pacemaker, we performed simultaneous bilateral carotid artery stenting (sbCAS) 3 days after admission. The patient first suffered slight right-sided hemiplegia and hoarseness, but symptoms resolved after rehabilitation, and modified Rankin Scale was 0 as of 2 years after the procedure. Bilateral CICAD causes severe insufficiency of cerebral blood flow, and symptoms often persist even after administration of antithrombotic agents. In such refractory cases, early intervention should be considered, and sbCAS can be safely performed. During the procedure, a transvenous temporary pacemaker maintains hemodynamic stability and might be a favorable option.
Germ cell tumors typically occur in children and adolescents. We here report a rare case of de novo pineal region germinoma in the seventh decade of life. A 62-year-old man presented with double vision. Computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) identified a heterogeneously enhanced tumor with calcification in the pineal region with ventricular dilatation due to aqueduct stenosis. The tumor had not been observed at all on MRI obtained 2 years previously. The patient underwent endoscopic biopsy and third ventriculostomy for the obstructive hydrocephalus. The tumor was histopathologically diagnosed as a pure germinoma. The patient underwent radiomonotherapy, resulting in his complete remission, which was confirmed by a series of follow-up MRI studies and hematological examinations. Intracranial germinoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pineal region tumors regardless of age, even though the tumor was undetectable on the previous neuroimaging.
We describe here a patient diagnosed with multiple loose bodies in the lumbar facet joint. The patient was a 52-year-old woman who presented with left sciatic pain. Neurological findings indicated L5 radiculopathy. Radiological findings revealed lateral recess stenosis at the L4–L5 level, and loose bodies in the left L4–L5 facet joint were noted that compressed the left L5 nerve root. We performed laminotomy at the left L4–L5 level, and removed five loose bodies located on the dorsal side of the ligamentum flavum. Following removal of the loose bodies and flavectomy, the L5 nerve root was decompressed. Postoperatively, the patient’s symptoms improved markedly. Symptomatic multiple loose bodies in the lumbar facet joint are very rare, and can cause lumbar radiculopathy. It is important for spine surgeons to recognize this pathology.
Developmental venous anomalies (DVAs) are generally asymptomatic; however, they can sometimes cause central nervous disorders. Aqueductal stenosis caused by DVAs is so rare that only 14 cases have been reported to date. Moreover, most patients are children or young adults, presenting with headaches or consciousness disturbances, associated with raised intracranial pressure. Here, we report on an 83-year-old man presenting with mimic symptoms of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (cognitive disorder, gait disturbance, and urinary urgency: Hakim’s triad) because of obstructive hydrocephalus caused by a DVA located in the aqueduct. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) was performed to relieve his symptoms, and the opening pressure of the lateral ventricle was recorded to be 10 cm-H2O. Endoscopic examination of the intraventricular system clearly revealed a vein within the aqueduct converging with the adjacent subependymal vessels. These findings were compatible with the characteristics of DVAs. His symptoms improved after the ETV. This case suggested that DVAs within the aqueduct, despite of their congenital nature, could give rise to decompensated obstructive hydrocephalus even in elderly patients, resulting in Hakim’s triad.
The source of bleeding in postoperative spinal epidural hematoma (pSEH) is often unclear. We describe a surgical case of pSEH in which the source of bleeding was thought to be the deep cervical artery (DCA). A 67-year-old man underwent C3 laminectomy, C4-6 unilateral open door laminoplasty, and C7 partial laminotomy for cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Intraoperatively, arterial hemorrhage from a distal branch of the right DCA was observed while drilling the lateral end of the C3 lamina, so electrocoagulation hemostasis was performed. A suction drain was used to obliterate the epidural space, and it was removed 22 h postoperatively. The patient suddenly felt posterior cervical pain 26 h postoperatively. Computed tomography demonstrated a huge epidural hematoma at the C3-6 level. The hematoma was evacuated 4 h after the onset of symptoms. Active bleeding was not seen intraoperatively. The patient was discharged on postoperative day 13, and no symptoms caused by the epidural hematoma remained. Considering the findings of the first operation, we concluded that a branch of the DCA might have been the source of bleeding in pSEH, and the site of the drain and removal procedure might have been one of the causes of bleeding. It is important to be aware of the DCA as a blood vessel because it requires careful attention when dissecting the semispinalis cervicis or performing operations for hemostasis before wound closure.
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the posterior subthalamic nucleus (pSTN), caudal zona incerta (cZI), and prelemniscal radiation (Raprl) has been shown to improve Parkinsonian motor symptoms. We herein report neurophysiological and functional differences among the cZI, Raprl, and pSTN in a 68-year-old male patient with Parkinson’s disease (PD). The stereotactic implantation of DBS electrodes in the right STN was performed. Thereafter, a transfrontal trajectory for the left cZI was planned for left side implantation, with the expectation that the electrode entered the pSTN in the case of a posterior brain shift. In the implantation of the DBS lead in the cZI, three microelectrodes were simultaneously placed in an array with the central, medial, and anterior positions placed 2 mm apart to delineate the cZI, Raprl, and pSTN, respectively. A maximal reduction in bradykinesia was obtained from the stimulation of the pSTN at the lowest voltage thresholds, and the voltage threshold for abolishing tremors was lower in the Raprl and cZI than in the pSTN. The left DBS lead was implanted in the pSTN because right-sided bradykinesia was more severe than tremor. The multitrack recording of cZI, Raprl, and pSTN might broaden target selection depending on patients’ symptoms.
This paper reports on a case of pilocytic astrocytoma (PA), for which a diagnosis by conventional pathological diagnosis was difficult but an accurate diagnosis was possible by a new molecular diagnostic method. A 13-year-old girl whose tumor developed by a headache that gradually worsened, and a well-demarcated T2-hyperintense lesion was found in the left cerebellum by a magnetic resonance imaging while the apparent diffusion coefficient value was also high. While the finding was a typical PA, histological features of PA were not found in the surgical specimen. An initial diagnosis was anaplastic astrocytoma (AA), and the final diagnosis through a central review was diffuse astrocytoma (DA). On the other hand, using MethylationEPIC (850 K) array, an analysis by a DNA methylation-based tumor classifier tool as reported by Capper et al. showed that this case belonged to a methylation class of PA. The copy number profile calculated from the methylation array data showed hints of BRAF/KIAA1549 fusion and no other chromosomal alterations, which also supported the molecular diagnosis. The patient was treated with local radiotherapy concomitant with temozolomide based on the initial pathological diagnosis during the consultation, but maintenance temozolomide therapy was not done according to the final molecular diagnosis. The tumor showed no recurrence for 20 months. In this case, the integrated diagnostic approach based on histological and molecular findings was clinically significant to select proper adjuvant treatment. It is crucial that the usefulness and robustness of this new molecular diagnostic method be validated further.