Mucosal prolapse syndrome (MPS) is a benign inflammatory disease that causes symptoms such as blood-stained stools and anemia. It is caused by the excessive mechanical stimulus of straining in patients with chronic constipation. The basic treatment of MPS is to normalize the defecation, but surgical therapy is effective for treatment of resistant cases. A 30-year-old man presented with blood-stained stools and anemia due to MPS and had been treated conservatively for three years. However, the blood-stained stools have been bothering him. Colonoscopy revealed two lesions in the rectum and we performed endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) of the two lesions. He has had no symptoms for three years after ESD. This case shows that ESD can be effective for symptomatic MPS.