2014 Volume 90 Issue 2 Pages 56-66
Antillatoxin 1 is a unique natural product that displays potent neurotoxic and neuritogenic activities through activation of voltage-gated sodium channels. The peptidic macrocycle of 1 was attached to a side chain with an exceptionally high degree of methylation. In this review, we discuss the total synthesis and biological evaluation of 1 and its analogues. First we describe an efficient synthetic route to 1. This strategy enabled the unified preparation of nine side chain analogues. Structure-activity relationship studies of these analogues revealed that subtle side chain modification leads to dramatic changes in activity, and detailed structural analyses indicated the importance of the overall size and three dimensional shape of the side chain. Based on these data, we designed and synthesized a photoresponsive analogue, proving that the activity of 1 was modulated via a photochemical reaction. The knowledge accumulated through these studies will be useful for the rational design of new tailor-made molecules to control the function and behavior of ion channels.