Nucleocytoplasmic transport is an essential process in eukaryotes. The molecular mechanisms underlying nuclear transport that involve the nuclear transport receptor, small GTPase Ran, and the nuclear pore complex are highly conserved from yeast to humans. On the other hand, it has become clear that the nuclear transport system diverged during evolution to achieve various physiological functions in multicellular eukaryotes. In this review, we first summarize the molecular mechanisms of nuclear transport and how these were elucidated. Then, we focus on the diverse functions of importin α, which acts not merely an import factor but also as a multi-functional protein contributing to a variety of cellular functions in higher eukaryotes.
Involuntary movements and parkinsonism have been interesting and important topics in neurology since the last century. The development of anatomical and physiological studies of the neural circuitry of motor systems has encouraged the study of movement disorders by means of pathophysiology and brain imaging.
Multichannel electromyography from affected muscles has generated objective and analytical data on chorea, ballism, athetosis, and dystonia. Studies using floor reaction forces revealed the pathophysiology of freezing of gait in parkinsonism. Akinesia and bradykinesia are attributable to dysfunctions in the basal ganglia, frontal lobe, and parieto-occipital visual association cortex.
Reciprocal innervation is an essential mechanism of smooth voluntary movement. Spinal reflexes on reciprocal innervation has been investigated in awake humans, and the pathophysiology of spasticity and Parkinson’s disease were revealed as a result. Clinical applications for the treatment and evaluation of status have been developed.
For future studies, detailed neural mechanisms underlying the development of motor disorders in basal ganglia diseases and recovery by interventions including surgery and neurorehabilitation are important.
This paper reviews the literature on social neuroscience studies using macaques in the hope of encouraging as many researchers as possible to participate in this field of research and thereby accelerate the system-level understanding of social cognition and behavior. We describe how different parts of the primate brain are engaged in different aspects of social information processing, with particular emphasis on the use of experimental paradigms involving more than one monkey in laboratory settings. The description begins with how individual neurons are used for evaluating socially relevant information, such as the identity, face, and focus of attention of others in various social contexts. A description of the neural bases of social reward processing and social action monitoring follows. Finally, we provide several perspectives on novel experimental strategies to help clarify the nature of interacting brains under more socially and ecologically plausible conditions.