2018 Volume 94 Issue 10 Pages 373-389
Lysophospholipids (LPLs), such as lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), and lysophosphatidylserine (LysoPS), are attracting attention as second-generation lipid mediators. In our laboratory, the functional roles of these lipid mediators and the mechanisms by which the levels of these mediators are regulated in vivo have been studied. Based on these studies, the clinical introduction of assays for LPLs and related proteins has been pursued and will be described in this review. Although assays of these lipids themselves are possible, autotaxin (ATX), apolipoprotein M (ApoM), and phosphatidylserine-specific phospholipase A1 (PS-PLA1) are more promising as alternate biomarkers for LPA, S1P, and LysoPS, respectively. Presently, ATX, which produces LPA through its lysophospholipase D activity, has been shown to be a useful laboratory test for the diagnosis and staging of liver fibrosis, whereas PS-PLA1 and ApoM are considered to be promising clinical markers reflecting the in vivo actions induced by LysoPS and S1P.