2019 Volume 95 Issue 2 Pages 75-85
GTP is an essential source of energy that supports a large array of cellular mechanochemical structures ranging from protein synthesis machinery to cytoskeletal apparatus for maintaining the cell cycle. However, GTP regulation during the cell cycle has been difficult to investigate because of heterogenous levels of GTP in asynchronous cell cycles and genetic redundancy of the GTP-generating enzymes. Here, in the unicellular red algae Cyanidioschyzon merolae, we demonstrated that the ATP–GTP-converting enzyme DYNAMO2 is an essential regulator of global GTP levels during the cell cycle. The cell cycle of C. merolae can be highly synchronized by light/dark stimulations to examine GTP levels at desired time points. Importantly, the genome of C. merolae encodes only two isoforms of the ATP–GTP-converting enzyme, namely DYNAMO1 and DYNAMO2. DYNAMO1 regulates organelle divisions, whereas DYNAMO2 is entirely localized in the cytoplasm. DYNAMO2 protein levels increase during the S-M phases, and changes in GTP levels are correlated with these DYNAMO2 protein levels. These results indicate that DYNAMO2 is a potential regulator of global GTP levels during the cell cycle.