2017 年 2 巻
Objective: Elderly people’s success in attaining rehabilitation goals may be heavily dependent on their achievement motive, but research has not identified the factors that impact on achievement motive or suggested any effective interventions to enhance it. This study demonstrated the effects of personality traits, theories of intelligence, and other factors on achievement motive among community-dwelling elderly people. Methods: The dataset consisted of questionnaire responses from 281 elderly people in day-service or day-care centers. A hypothetical model, based on previous research, proposed that achievement motive would be affected by personality traits, theory of intelligence, and other factors (such as drinking and smoking habits, going out for activities, marital status, and hobbies); that personality traits would have some effect on the theory of intelligence and other factors; and that the theory of intelligence would affect personal factors. The hypothetical model was analyzed using a structural equation modeling approach. Results: The model was modified by removing statistically insignificant paths to achievement motive. The modified model exhibited an excellent fit and showed that achievement motive was affected by personality traits, going out for activities, and marital status (although, surprisingly, single people had stronger achievement motive). The model had an adjusted R2 of 0.593 (P < 0.001) for achievement motive. Conclusion: The results indicated that three of the Big Five personality traits (extraversion, conscientiousness, and openness to experience) tend to enhance elderly people’s motivation to achieve their goals; moreover, going out more frequently and being single were also associated with achievement motive.