2016 年 59 巻 2-3 号 p. 100-111
We tested whether horses (Equus caballus) are sensitive to human attentional states and modify the modality of begging behaviors as a function of human attentional states in a naturalistic food-requesting situation. In Experiment 1, horses tended to produce more auditory or tactile begging behaviors when the human experimenter (E1)’s eyes were covered by her hand than when they were not covered. However, there was no difference in visual begging behaviors between conditions. In Experiment 2, horses produced significantly more auditory or tactile begging behaviors when E1’s eyes were closed than when they were open. In contrast, horses produced significantly more visual begging behaviors when E1’s eyes were open than when they were closed. These results suggest that horses understand the role of eyes as an indicator of human attentional states and show effective and flexible begging behaviors proactively as a function of human attentional states.