2015 Volume 11 Pages 27-30
Water vapor variations associated with a meso-γ scale convection were investigated using GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) derived PWV (precipitable water vapor) and high resolution numerical model data with a 250 m horizontal grid interval. A rapid increase of GNSS-derived PWV that occurred prior to the initiation of surface rainfall was well simulated by the numerical model.
In the model, PWV values began to increase 16 min before the rainfall occurred at the surface. A local maximum of PWV was formed because of the generation of shallow free convection and surface water vapor flux convergence due to a lifting of an air parcel at approximately 1 km elevation by a preceding surface wind convergence. Due to the existence of a stable inversion layer between 2.2 and 3.5 km elevation, the shallow free convection took 11 min to rise above the inversion layer to form a deep convection. These results suggest that observation of local distributions of GNSS-derived PWV is useful for monitoring the generation of deep moist convection.