2020 Volume 16 Pages 125-131
Heavy precipitation in Japan is caused by various phenomena, such as tropical cyclones and the Baiu front, and shows regional-scale variation. Here we investigate extremely heavy precipitation events exceeding the 100-year return period in the Kanto area and future projections of such events using large ensemble climate simulations for periods of several thousand years. To understand these extreme events, associated sea level pressure anomalies over Japan and the surrounding region are classified into four clusters. These cluster means are characterized by (1) a strong anomalous cyclone, (2) a weak anomalous cyclone, (3) an anomalous cyclone accompanied by an anomalous anticyclone to the north, and (4) an anomalous anticyclone to the north. The cluster with a strong anomalous cyclone is accompanied by widely distributed heavy precipitation, and its area-averaged precipitation is predicted to be more enhanced under global warming than that of other clusters, partly because of an increase in the strength of strong tropical cyclones approaching Kanto. The cluster dominated by an anomalous anticyclone is characterized by localized heavy precipitation in the plains area. The relative frequency of this cluster will increase, whereas that of other clusters will decrease under global warming.