The study conducted was an investigation of the challenges of sustainable Solid Waste Management (SWM) in Lusaka, Zambia’s capital. The problem of SWM has become more complicated and requires sustainable long-term programs for its solution as less than 20% of the solid waste collected was disposed of properly. Lusaka lacked proper SWM strategies. For this study, data collection comprised of naturalistic observations at the main dumpsite in Lusaka and questionnaires to nine waste enterprises mandated to collect waste in addition to the Lusaka City Council (N = 10). The study focused on understanding the current situation of sustainable SWM, particularly the waste treatment process after disposal. Results revealed several challenges affecting an efficient sustainable waste management system, which were primarily highlighted as; lack of waste separation at source, insufficient funds and lack of equipment. All the private companies interviewed indicated that their role in SWM was basically in collection and disposal. Most private companies indicated that they were secondary waste collectors, whereas majority of the Community Based Enterprises (CBEs) were primary collectors. From the research findings, treatment of solid waste was conducted at very minimal rates and not sustainable. At the dumpsite, the machinery was out of service facilitating indiscriminate dumping rather than use of the landfill method.