Article ID: 00023
In 2015, it was estimated that 2.4 billion people globally still use unimproved sanitation facilities, among which 40% live in Southern Asia (WHO 2015). Ecological sanitation could be the best alternative to solve the problem of sanitation and to improve livelihood. The study was conducted in one of the Village Development Committee (VDC) of Bhaktapur district where ecosan toilet was constructed for the households with the financial and technical help from Environment and Public Health Organization (ENPHO). The present study investigated ecosan users’ and non-users’ attitudes towards ecosan toilet through questionnaire survey. Fifteen ecosan users and 15 non-users were interviewed. Five ecosan users were selected from abovementioned 15 users for microbial contamination. Fecal contamination on hands, shoes back, soil sample and ecosan manure sample was measured by monitoring Echerichia coli as a fecal indicator bacteria. The results from the questionnaire survey suggested that all ecosan user farmers agreed with the positive effects of ecosan manure in terms of fertilizer use and have not mentioned any problems on use of ecosan toilet. Although majority of the non-ecosan users are aware of the benefits of ecosan toilet but only few are willing to install ecosan toilet due to its drawbacks such as need of ash, user unfriendly and unsuitability for large size family (> 5 family members). Need of proper management of ecosan toilet and awareness campaign on self-hygiene was found to be necessary to promote effective use of ecosan toilet. The E. coli tests suggested that only ecosan manure is not the source for fecal transmission. However urine and ecosan manure from ecosan toilet might get contaminated by fecal microorganisms through other sources. Proper attention is necessary to reduce such contamination which is generally neglected by the users.