2020 Volume 32 Issue 189 Pages E167-E175
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), a group of structurally related acidic polysaccharides, are primarily present as glycan moieties of proteoglycans (PGs). The physiological functions of PGs depend on the interaction between the glycan moieties and proteins such as growth factors, chemokines, and adhesion molecules. For this reason, the sulfation pattern, the degree of epimerization, and the glycan moiety chain length impact their interactions with GAG-binding proteins. Although the structural changes in GAGs occur during the development and aging process, their detailed mechanisms are not fully understood. This review provides an overview of the heparan sulfate (HS)- and chondroitin sulfate (CS)-related gene expression at the transcriptional and translational level. In addition, it also describes the molecular mechanisms of the polyamine stimulation of glycosaminoglycan synthesis.