The risk factors are unclear for peripheral venous catheter-associated bloodstream infections (PVCBSI) by Bacillus cereus (B. cereus). Thus, we aimed to examine the risk factors in patients with B. cereus PVCBSI by conducting a 2-year case-control study in a large teaching hospital. We analyzed all adult cases of B. cereus PVCBSI (37 patients) and 180 controls, who were randomly selected from among patients who had a PVC in place for 2 days or longer. Multivariate analysis using the conditional logistic regression model indicated that independent risk factors were use of a peripheral parenteral nutrition(PPN) solution with adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 88.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 17.4-451.9), and steroid therapy [adjusted OR, 5.7 (95% CI, 1.3-24.4)]. In conclusion, use of PPN solutions or steroids was independent risk factors for B. cereus PVCBSI. Appropriate use of PPN solutions may help prevent B. cereus PVCBSI. Prospective studies are needed to confirm these results.