1988 年 41 巻 2 号 p. 215-221
Three Nankaido earthquakes which occurred near the Nankai Trough in 1707 (Hoei 4), 1854 (Ansei 1) and 1946 (Showa 21) hit the West Japan and the Wakayama, Tokushima and Kochi coasts, facing the Pacific Ocean, have suffered severe damage from large tsunamis. Inundation heights along these coasts were surveyed by the author (HATORI, 1978, 1980, 1981). In this paper, we investigate the tsunami behaviors in the Seto Inland Sea and Bungo Channel on the basis of newly collected documents. The obtained results are as follows:
1) Inundation heights (above M. S. L.) of the 1946 tsunami at the coasts facing the Bungo Channel were 1-3 meters, and heights at the south region of channel were large. The inundation heights of the 1707 Hoei and 1854 Ansei tsunamis have reached 3-4 meters.
2) According to the refraction diagram of the 1946 tsunami, the wave-fronts propagated into the Seto Inland Sea through the Kii and Bungo Channels meet the central part about 3 hours after the earthquake occerrence. The inundation heights about 1 meter were uniformly distributed.
3) The inundation heights of the 1707 Hoei and 1854 Ansei tsunamis in the western to central parts of the Seto Inland Sea were about 1.5 meters, but those in the eastern part were 2-3 meters. This behavior seems to be caused by the differences of tsunami heights between both channls and the propagated distances. For each Nankaido tsunami, the inundation heights along the coasts facing the Kii Channel were 1-2 meters larger than those of the Bungo Channel.
Althogh tsunami heights in the Seto Inland Sea were small compared with those of the Pacific side, many salt fields along the coast were damaged both by earthquakes and tsunamis. Further more, velocity of the tidal current was locally fast, and many sailors were shipwrecked in straits of the Inland Sea. In future, it is indispensable to take precautions against the effect of tidal currents.