1993 年 46 巻 3 号 p. 229-235
One of the largest different conditions between the nature and laboratory experiment of rock fracturing is strain rate. Conventional experiment at a constant strain rate may not simulate the precursory stage of seismic fracture, where strain rate is so low that any anomalous crustal deformation may occur by consuming the strain energy that has already accumulated rather than one newly supplied from the exterior. In order to simulate such a preseismic stage of the crust, we conducted a “zero strain-rate experiment” using Westary granite as a sample. The granite specimen is loaded at a constant strain-rate mode until stress reaches a level about 90% of the fracture stress. The bulk axial strainis then kept constant by servo-control to observe the time-variations of axial stress, local strains, dilatant strain and AE-activity.
Initially the axial stress decays exponentially and then linearly until the sample is finally broken. Axial surface strain shows a different behavior at different locality; strain concentration occurs in the area near the final fault and strain relaxation in the area far from it. Very anomalous behaviors are observed in both the areas just prior to the final break. Some implications of these results are discussed in conjunction with the field observations of crustal deformation before earthquake occurrence.