In order to find out the learning and behavioral difficulties of foreign preschoolers and, primary and junior high school children who lives in Japan, and the difficulties of supports for foreign children, we conducted a questionnaire survey to the members of Board of Education in Japan. A huge number of foreign children needed support for the learning and behavioral difficulties regardless of the number of foreign children in kindergartens or schools. In addition, this study revealed that it is hard to determine whether the learning and behavioral problems shown by foreign children are resulted from the difference in language and culture, or developmental disorders. Our findings will provide basal materials for future research about supports for foreign children with troubles during their school years in Japan.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the actual situation of the feedback after the work experience in the context of employment support for students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Supporters of ASD students at universities or support facilities who are involved in employment support (N = 11) were subjected to semi-constructed interviews and analyzed using the Modified Grounded Theory Approach (M-GTA). As a result, 4 categories were generated: "Characteristics of the ASD student at the time of the interview felt by the supporters" "Response at the time of interview" "Correspondence policies (advance)" and "Difficulties in supporting". In addition, specific responses that considered the characteristics of students with ASD, including their disability characteristics, and points to be noted by supporters, although not specific responses, were arranged. Supporters emphasized the importance of response to enable students to reflect on themselves from an objective point of view and to view their employment experiences positively. In this study, there are cases in which supporters are struggling to respond, and it is necessary to examine the contents and methods of retrospectives in order to provide employment experiences more effectively by utilizing the knowledge obtained in this study.
This study aimed to explore the shifting recognition of teachers’ professionality in special needs education schools for children with physical disabilities during their teaching careers. Using the personal quality model and the collaboration model as theories of teacher professionality, the career history of veteran teachers was analyzed. The research participants were eight novice or newly appointed teachers who work at schools for children with physical disabilities. Each of these teachers faced difficulties in communicating with children with physical disabilities and teaching Jiritsu-Katsudo, a unique instructional field of special needs education schools during their first term. These teachers strongly exhibited traits of the personal quality model due to their recognition of the need to improve their own knowledge and skills. The research revealed that the weight of recognition of professionality shifted to the collaboration model when the role of the school organization changed to increase knowledge and skills based on teaching experience. As all participants were influenced by their colleagues, it is suggested that cooperation with colleagues is related to teacher development. Future research should examine the professionality of teachers in schools for children with physical disabilities by comparing these schools with other types of schools.
In this study, we examined the effects of the reinforcer amount presented after choice and the impact of reinforcers on choice in children with autism spectrum disorder. Two alternatives were presented in the experiment: One with a relatively large number and the other with a relatively small number of reinforcers. By manipulating reinforcer amount presented, two conditions were set: One where the reinforcers were presented for both alternatives and the other where they were not presented for one alternative. Character image and food were used as reinforcers. The results revealed the rate of choice for the alternative with many reinforcers was higher in the condition where the reinforcers were not presented in one alternative than when the reinforcers were presented in both options. In addition, there was a difference in the rate of choice of options from which many reinforcers were obtained depending on the type of reinforcer. In conclusion, it was suggested that when the difference in the reinforcer amount of choices presented was clear, which influenced the choice was influenced. Furthermore, the type of reinforcers influenced the choice of reinforcer amount.
The relationship between circumscribed interests (CI) in ASD, related emotional experiences and ASD tendency has not been fully studied. In this study, 22 junior and senior high school students (10 children with ASD, 12 TD children) participated in the experiment. Three image conditions,  Social condition including facial expressions of various people,  Non-social condition related to CI such as vehicles and machinery,  Non-social condition not related to CI such as furniture and tableware were set , and participants subjectively provided valence ratings, arousal ratings. Also, reaction time at the time of judgment were measured. As a result, there were no differences between groups in any of the indicators. However, there were significant correlation between the SCQ total score and valence ratings in one image condition, the SCQ total score and arousal ratings in all image conditions, Restricted, Repetitive, and Stereotyped Patterns of Behavior and RT in some image conditions. The above suggests that the ASD tendency may be related to the evocation of pleasant emotions, the amount of emotions, and the ability to quickly judge their emotions.
This study examined the relationship between reading speed, accuracy and the cognitive processes defined by PASS theory of 21 children (8-12 age) with ADHD. Standard scores of DN CAS were compared on the basis of the speed and accuracy of Kana reading . The result indicated that standard score of Attention was significantly lower than standard scores of Planning and Simultaneous processing in children with ADHD. Standard score of Simultaneous processing in the group of extra reading time was significantly lower than that in the group of standard reading time. Standard score of Attention in the group of extra reading time was marginally significantly lower than that in the group of standard reading time. In addition, Standard score of Planning in the group of extra reading error was marginally significantly lower than that in the group of standard reading error. Furthermore, standard score of Simultaneous processing in the group of extra reading time and error was significantly lower than that in the group of standard reading time and error. The overall results suggested the possibility of valuable assessment for not only individual cognitive processing characteristics, but also the state of ADHD children with reading difficulty based on PASS theory of intelligence.
Studies have noted the effectiveness of the functional behavior assessment (FBA) , which is based on the applied behavior analysis (ABA), for behavior problems among children in elementary schools. Elementary school teachers in Japan have few opportunities to learn about ABA, and few studies have examined its effects. In this study, we conducted a six-hour training program for elementary school teachers and evaluated changes in the quality and quantity of skills required to estimate behavioral causes and planning solutions. After the training program, the results indicated a qualitative change in the 13 participating teachers, in terms of identifying the function of behavior and planning the corresponding solutions. Moreover, the teachers became skillful in using multiple means for solving the behavior problem. In addition, the effect of short-term training suggests that it may be useful for building a school-wide support system in elementary schools. Future research is needed to examine the effects of training on randomized sampling subjects, the impact of training on teaching experiences or support, and the reliability of evaluation.
Team teaching has become a regular form of instruction in special needs school for children with physical disabilities. Although team teaching has the advantage of improving the effectiveness of instruction, some problems have been pointed out in terms of the teacher’s cooperation and human relations. This study aims to clarify how multiple teachers play roles at each stage of classroom in team teaching at the school for children with physical disabilities. As a result, it became clear that the number of teachers and students at the school is almost the same. That’s why the type of team teaching, which “one teacher is in charge of one child” in, is normally performed. Additionally, three following results were showed in comparison with special needs school for children with intellectual disabilities. Firstly, the percentage of having discussions with teachers at the planning stage is lower. Secondly, at the implementation stage, both the discrepancies between the teacher’s plan and the reality of the children’s behavior, and the discrepancies among the teacher’s thinking are huge. Finally, at the evaluation stage, the percentage of performing the class records and evaluations every time is higher.
This study investigated current food allergy knowledge and awareness among aspiring special support schoolteachers, as well as the effectiveness of related courses in teacher education. Questionnaires were administered to 39 aspiring special support schoolteachers before and after taking a food allergy course that included practical training using EpiPen® trainers. While current knowledge of food allergy medications, e.g. EpiPen®, was significantly lower relative to other areas, which suggested a need to expand such knowledge, the results indicated that post-course knowledge of food allergies rose significantly. Further, the above-mentioned practical training notably reduced participants’ fear of using an EpiPen® and increased their self-confidence in the proper use of the medication. Meanwhile, post-course concern over food allergies grew substantially, implying a heightened sense of the urgency of food allergy countermeasures. To inculcate schoolteachers with an adequate knowledge of food allergies and equip them with the emergency skills to deal with such outbreaks, periodic refresher courses should be integrated into teacher training and development.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the difficulties in solving mathematical calculations with low vision and concentric contraction, at a stage prior to think about difficulties in learning mathematics for low vision students. Twelve sighted university students cooperated in this experiment, and they solved calculations using a low-vision simulation lens. As a result of this experiment, the condition comparing with the lens (low vision) and the sighted, there were significant differences in the “answer completion rate”, “answer time”, and “score”. It has also suggested that students with low vision and concentric contraction have an effect on “answer time” and “score”. Moreover, in the condition of concentric contraction, there were more significant differences due to mistakes in copying and writing, and it was indicated that difficulty in grasping the whole image could affect calculations. Based on the above results, this study could focus on the following four points, the difficulty in learning mathematics with low vision and concentric contraction; “require time”, “copied and written mistakes”, “difficult to grasp the whole image”, and “difficulty in eye movement”.
Peer support arrangements provide social and academic support for students with severe disabilities and include them in general education classrooms. This study sought to examine current peer support arrangements through a focus on the requirements for students who receive and provide that support. We also investigated how educators matched those students both with each other and with the classes in which they could participate together. The initial scope of this study centered on the effects of peer support arrangements, but has gradually shifted to examine the program contents. The students with severe disabilities who were eligible to receive support would have autism and/or intellectual disability, be eligible for the state’s alternative assessment, and be able to participate in a general education setting with the direct support of adults. In contrast, students who provided support would be enrolled in the same class as the student with severe disabilities and have an interest in peer to peer relationships and serving as a positive role model. When the students who received and provided the support were matched, they tended to be pairs of the same grade or the same age, and male students with severe disabilities were often paired with female students without disabilities.
This article reviews issues found in studies of preschool children regarding symptoms of auditory processing disorder, notably listening difficulties in noise. Nursery teachers care considerably about the social and behavioral issues in preschool children, although they are less concerned about their listening problems. These problems are known as auditory processing disorder (APD). However, the definition of APD is still being discussed, and a few studies have focused on the present status of preschool children who exhibit symptoms of APD. Further studies are necessary to assess these issues and establish an appropriate assessment method. Listening difficulty in noise is one of the most well-known symptoms of APD. Previous studies have consistently indicated that speech-in-noise perception in preschool children is poorer than that in adults. Some preschool children especially exhibited significantly lower performance than children of the same chronological agedid. Such poor speech perceptions might be associated with skills of selective attention and/or phonological awareness. Further studies would be necessary to clarify the relationship between speech perception and cognitive factors.
This study focused on individual teaching of Jiritsu-Katsudou (a unique instructional field of special needs education schools) for physical movement in special needs schools (physical disability) and aimed to discover what effects proficiency in Dohsa-hou, as used in teaching Jiritsu-katsudou, have on younger teachers’ decision-making. The subjects were six younger teachers, who were divided into two groups according to their proficiency in Dohsa-hou; we analyzed the lesson “teachers’ discussions on divergence” as per its design at the stage of conducting the lesson and their responses to it. The results showed a difference in the presence of countermeasures, and an analysis suggested that differences occur in the decision-making of teachers who change what they teach and how they teach it, according to the state of learners’ physical movements, depending on their proficiency in Dohsa-hou. Case studies have methodological limitations, but given that acquisition and mastery of specific teaching methods affect each step of lesson planning, conduct, and evaluation, this study provides fundamental materials that contribute to the improvement of Jiritsu-Katsudou teaching skills.
We adapted theory of cognitive process to the intervention for a student with ADHD. The purpose of the present study was to suggest how to know emotional state and control by himself under looking back on the past. We talked about events which was in school and asked him how felt then. Moreover, we asked him to express your emotion for each event, through utilizing a worksheet. To visualize the degree of emotion, it seemed that he found significance in “visualization of emotions” and began to notice the relationship between his actions and emotions. Moreover, it seems that he was doing self-monitoring of emotions at home and school voluntarily. Therefore, we suggested that it is effective that intervention based on the evaluation of cognitive characteristic, and we could adjust the situation for each student by utilizing the worksheet, and get an opportunity to explain how he feels. Furthermore, his parents or his teachers also could understand how he feels, and his emotion would change by the order of events or physical condition, even if the same situation.