On the basis of literature research, this paper divides the course of the development of Deyu courses, or special moral education curriculum, in Chinese primary and secondary schools since the reform and opening up into three important stages: 1. the period of restoration and initial reform (1977-2000); 2. Period of breakthrough and overall reform (2001-2015); 3. The period of reflection and precipitation of reform (2016-). There is a great change, but also a certain continuity in the development of Deyu curriculum in China in the past 40 years. Through the history reviewing, this paper makes a concrete analysis of the development, characteristics, problems and challenges of the Deyu curriculum in Chinese primary and secondary schools. This paper argues that China in the 21st century has entered a "new era" indeed, but how to respond to this "new era" has become one of the most important challenges facing China's Deyu.
“Collaboration as regards to the welfare and education of the elderly” refers to the introduction of educational facilities into nursing homes for the elderly, with the collaboration of both education and welfare bureaus. However, there is no clear division of work between the two. To clarify the actual situation in terms of collaboration between bureaus, it is necessary to investigate both public and private nursing homes due to their different ways of operation. Thus, this paper aims to clarify the situation and issues arising in terms of collaboration between bureaus by researching both public and private nursing homes in Shanghai. Furthermore, the importance of providing learning opportunities for elderly people who need care will be investigated.
Through analyzing public and private nursing homes in Shanghai, it can be clarified that both have different routes for introducing “collaboration as regards to the welfare and education of the elderly”, with the reduced involvement of the welfare agency being a primary contributing factor. Even so, both types of nursing homes realized the benefits of providing learning activities to elderly people needing high-level of care. Developing appropriate learning content for participants is the most up-to-date issue identified by this paper. To solve this issue, a new style of collaboration between education and welfare bureaus is needed for future educational gerontology in China.
This paper focuses on the concrete involvement of the Arts and Science Society of China in “The Japanese Cultural Project for China” implemented by the Japanese government in the 1920s. The paper aims to clarify that Japanese and Chinese scholars, who kept their distance from political and diplomatic relations between the two countries, collaborated together on the cultural project above mentioned.
The Arts and Science Society of China was inaugurated in 1916 by Chinese students who were studying in Japan and were keeping their distance from political activities. Members of the society also continued to appeal for the independence of “The Japanese Cultural Project for China” from the political interventions of both the Japanese and the Chinese governments, thereby clashing with the Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs, which continued to hold the real power over the cultural project. On the other hand, there was collaboration between the members of the society and Japanese scholars on “The Shanghai Natural Science Institute,” which was one of the core projects of “The Japanese Cultural Project for China.” Based on the ideas of Zheng Zhenwen and other members of the Arts and Science society of China, Shinzo Shinshiro developed a plan regarding the “East Asia Academic Research Council,” independent of the Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs, in order to establish a basis for the promotion of joint research projects and to coordinate academic groups in Japan and China.
The plan drawn up by the members of the Arts and Science Society of China and Shinzo Shinjo was brought to a halt due to the “National Revolution” and “Tanaka Diplomacy,” which were the political and diplomatic conflicts between Japan and China. However, such collaboration between Japanese and Chinese scholars in terms of cultural exchange passed on to the next generation. The involvement of Luo Zongluo and other members of the second generation of the society, in the requisition of Taipei Imperial University, is a typical example of the continuity of such cultural collaboration from one generation to the next.
Immediately after the foundation of the People’s Republic of China, vast rural areas faced the urgent task of reforming the quality of people’s education and enhancing the cultural level of the peasants. In this context, people across the country carried out a massive educational literacy campaign. This paper examines why peasants in the 1950s, who were not considered to be in need of literacy education, were willing to participate and make literacy education a mass movement.
The study attempts to understand the methods of literacy education by analyzing historical material and interviews with participants at the time in Jiangsu province. First, peasants’ participation in literacy education heavily relied on the mobilization of the government. Second, literate middle-class and poor peasants with a sense of duty as the protagonists of the new society, were obliged to teach illiterate peasants to read and write, thus becoming the driving force in literacy education. Lastly, the choice of time, place, and the content of literacy education are all closely associated with the actual life and needs of the peasants, hence ensuring the survival of literacy education.
In this paper, two main organizations responsible for the support and education of international students in pre-war Japan are compared, namely, the Institute of Japan and China (Nikka-gakkai) and the International Students Institute (Kokusai Gakuyukai). The former was founded in 1918 for the support and education of Chinese students and the latter was established in 1935 to support and educate international students from other regions, especially South East Asia. The two organizations had received subsidies from the Cultural Department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and ended up being involved in its overseas cultural maneuvering.
The two organizations had similar functions: the provision of accommodation and Japanese language education, and other various support related to studying and living in Japan. Both of them came under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Greater Asia in 1942 and engaged in the education and training of those who would cooperate with Japan in the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Area.
From the analysis of the activities, budget, and board members of the two organizations, this paper highlights the increased emphasis on diplomatic and militaristic aspects in international student policy in the pre-war period. It also compares the perceptions of students toward Japan and the career development of graduates, which were found to be largely influenced by diplomatic relations between their home countries and Japan.
Japan began to accept overseas students after its sovereignty was restored in 1952. At the time, the Consultative Meetings on Issue Related to International-Student was inaugurated with the participation of the Ministry of Education (Monbusho), the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MOFA), and the International Students Institute (ISI). This study examines how the postwar international-student policy of Japan was formulated by analyzing the minutes of the Consultative Meetings from 1952 to 1954, which led to the following conclusions. Firstly, the basic structure of the postwar international-student policy was formulated in 1954. Since then, Monbusho and the Association of International Education, Japan (AIEJ) looked after Japanese Government Scholarship Students, whereas ISI took care of privately funded and foreign-government sponsored students. Moreover, the Asia Association accepted technical trainees from overseas. Secondly, in 1959, the Institute of Japan-and China, which was originally established in 1918, terminated its activities of accepting and caring for Chinese students, which ended the prewar system of receiving international students in Japan. Thirdly, the Consultative Meetings with the participation of the Ministry of Justice, Monbusho, and MOFA provided opportunities to discuss practical issues related to accepting international students based on the Immigration Control Act enacted in 1951.
This study reveals the establishment of the postwar system of accepting international students in Japan at an early stage. Under this system, Monbusho and AIEJ mainly promoted the acceptance of Japanese Government Scholarship Students in the postwar period.
The purpose of this research is to analyze the functional variability of human resource development models in China’s major private vocational education institutions, such as “Independent College”, “Minban College” and “Minban Vocational and Technical College”, which have been making progress by strengthening their applied human resource development function.
The findings from the study suggest that recognizing and overcoming issues regard the traditional human resource development model in China’s private higher vocational education system was necessary in order to address a series of social and economic development issues, such as the human resource development that accompanies rapid economic and industrial structural changes. As a result, each private higher vocational education institution tried to aim for a best match from the mismatch in applied human resource development. Therefore, the functional variability of applied human resource development models in China’s private higher vocational education institutions is flexible due to the fact that all universities have quickly reviewed the applied human resource development functions and they are trying to organize and implement educational and vocational content into the new curriculum to respond to social and economic development needs.