Allergology International
Online ISSN : 1440-1592
Print ISSN : 1323-8930
ISSN-L : 1323-8930
最新号
選択された号の論文の31件中1~31を表示しています
Editorial
Invited Review Articles
  • Maeve M. Kelleher, Lien Tran, Robert J. Boyle
    2020 年 69 巻 1 号 p. 3-10
    発行日: 2020年
    公開日: 2020/01/21
    ジャーナル フリー

    The relationship between infant skin health and food allergy pathogenesis is the focus of intense research activity, on the basis that interventions to improve infant skin health may potentially lead to the prevention of food allergy. Current evidence does not provide conclusive findings on the mechanisms of food allergy development but does support the possibility that food allergy develops through transcutaneous sensitisation to allergenic peptides. In this article, we review the evidence for this model of food allergy development, assess strategies currently being tested for prevention of food allergy through cutaneous interventions, and identify key knowledge gaps which might be explored in future work.

  • Naoko Inomata
    2020 年 69 巻 1 号 p. 11-18
    発行日: 2020年
    公開日: 2020/01/21
    ジャーナル フリー

    Gibberellin-regulated proteins (GRPs)/GASA proteins are members of cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptide families and are conserved in a broad range of plants. Some GRPs in fruits and pollens have been identified as allergens including peach Pru p 7, Japanese apricot Pru m 7, orange Cit s 7, pomegranate Pun g 7, and cypress pollen GRP. The clinical features of fruit-derived GRP allergies frequently include systemic reactions, multiple fruit allergies regardless of plant kingdom classifications and, less frequently, cofactor-dependence. Multiple fruit allergies might be related to cross-reactivity between GRPs. Clinical cross-reactivity, at least between the four fruit-derived GRPs, has been proven. In addition, GRP allergy induces peculiar clinical symptoms, such as laryngeal tightness and facial swelling, especially eyelid edema, which was proposed to be a predictive factor for Pru p 7 allergy. Fruit-derived GRPs have an unusually high content of cysteine, resulting in high stability to heat and resistance to digestive enzymes. Therefore, GRPs are considered “true” food allergens that induce severe allergic reactions. As an alternative mechanism of fruit-derived GRP allergies, cross-reactivity between fruit GRP and cypress pollen GRP, which might play a role as a sensitizer, is suspected. Taken together, these characteristics indicate GRPs are clinically relevant plant allergens.

    This review article summarizes our current knowledge of the clinical features and important aspects of GRP sensitization and allergy.

  • Antonella Muraro, David Alejandro Mendoza Hernandez
    2020 年 69 巻 1 号 p. 19-27
    発行日: 2020年
    公開日: 2020/01/21
    ジャーナル フリー

    There is an increasing public concern on food allergy and related anaphylactic reactions that occur mainly at the community level. The perception of the disease is huge among parents who believe that 1 out of 20 children suffers from severe food allergy. The discrepancy between this self-reported prevalence and the real one when a food challenge is performed, points out the gap in the implementation of guidelines for clinical practice. Health professionals as well show scarce adherence to the guidelines both at the Emergency Departments and at the primary care level. Anaphylactic reaction are not recognized, adrenaline is under-used and self-injectable devices are not prescribed. Although education and training are limited to local, spontaneous initiatives from patient's organization and few allergists, the data so far available demonstrate that improvement in knowledge and attitudes can be achieved further to a structured program. There is the need to establish good evidence -based practices for educational intervention that should be adopted in the context of public health policies for food allergy. This would imply a change in legislation in many countries to prevent prosecution for liability of lay people administering adrenaline when properly trained. In parallel an integrated clinical care pathway should be developed by multidisciplinary and multi-professional teams in the context of national Centres of Excellence -CoE. These CoE could drive the progression to digital health create, creating networks of CoE for best practices of care and for clinical trials

Review Articles
  • Jun Miyata, Koichi Fukunaga, Yusuke Kawashima, Osamu Ohara, Makoto Ari ...
    2020 年 69 巻 1 号 p. 28-34
    発行日: 2020年
    公開日: 2020/01/21
    ジャーナル フリー

    Eosinophils are multifaceted immune cells with diverse functions that enhance allergic inflammation. Cysteinyl leukotrienes (cys-LTs), mainly synthesized in eosinophils, are a class of inflammatory lipid mediators produced via multiple enzymatic reactions from arachidonic acid. Multiple clinical studies have reported dysregulated fatty acid metabolism in severe asthma and aspirin-exacerbated respiratory diseases. Therefore, understanding the mechanism responsible for this metabolic abnormality has attracted a lot of attention. In eosinophils, various stimuli (including cytokines, chemokines, and pathogen-derived factors) prime and/or induce leukotriene generation and secretion. Cell-cell interactions with component cells (endothelial cells, epithelial cells, fibroblasts) also enhance this machinery to augment allergic responses. Nasal polyp-derived eosinophils from patients with eosinophilic rhinosinusitis present a characteristic fatty acid metabolism with selectively higher production of leukotriene D4. Interestingly, type 2 cytokines and microbiome components might be responsible for this metabolic change with altered enzyme expression. Here, we review the regulation of fatty acid metabolism, especially cys-LT metabolism, in human eosinophils toward allergic inflammatory status.

  • He Li, Yunzhe Tian, Lihui Xie, Xiuxing Liu, Zhaohao Huang, Wenru Su
    2020 年 69 巻 1 号 p. 35-45
    発行日: 2020年
    公開日: 2020/01/21
    ジャーナル フリー

    Allergic diseases, which include asthma, allergic skin diseases, allergic rhinitis and allergic conjunctivitis, have already garnered worldwide public health attention over recent decades. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have gradually emerged as a potential method for treating allergic diseases due to their immunosuppressive characteristics, tissue repair ability and secretion of various biological factors. This potential of MSC-based therapy has been confirmed in clinical and preclinical studies, which report the therapeutic benefits of MSCs for various allergic diseases and explore the antiallergic mechanisms. In this review, we focus on the discoveries and biological mechanisms of MSCs as a therapeutic tool in allergic diseases. We discuss the challenges of conducting MSC studies as well as future directions.

Original Articles
  • Hironobu Sunadome, Hisako Matsumoto, Yumi Izuhara, Tadao Nagasaki, Yos ...
    2020 年 69 巻 1 号 p. 46-52
    発行日: 2020年
    公開日: 2020/01/21
    ジャーナル フリー
    電子付録

    Background: Obesity affects the pathogenesis of various chronic diseases, including asthma. Research on correlations between obesity/BMI and eosinophilic inflammation in asthma has yielded contradictory results, which could be partly ascribed to the absence of epidemiological data on the correlations. We aimed to elucidate the correlations between blood eosinophil count, its genetic backgrounds, and BMI in the general population.

    Methods: This community-based Nagahama study in Japan enrolled 9789 inhabitants. We conducted self-reporting questionnaires, lung function tests, and blood tests in the baseline and 5-year follow-up studies. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed in 4650 subjects at the baseline and in 4206 of these at the follow-up to determine single-nucleotide polymorphisms for elevated blood eosinophil counts. We assessed the correlations between BMI and eosinophil counts using a multifaceted approach, including the cluster analysis.

    Results: Eosinophil counts positively correlated with BMI, observed upon the interchange of an explanatory variable, except for subjects with the highest quartile of eosinophils (≥200/μL), in whom BMI negatively correlated with eosinophil counts. GWAS and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) imputation identified rs4713354 variant (MDC1 on chromosome 6p21) for elevated eosinophil counts, independent of BMI and IgE. Rs4713354 was accumulated in a cluster characterized by elevated eosinophil counts (mean, 498 ± 178/μL) but normal BMI.

    Conclusions: Epidemiologically, there may be a positive association between blood eosinophil counts and BMI in general, but there was a negative correlation in the population with high eosinophil counts. Factors other than BMI, particularly genetic backgrounds, may contribute to elevated eosinophil counts in such populations.

  • Hiroyuki Nagase, Mitsuru Adachi, Kazuto Matsunaga, Atsushi Yoshida, To ...
    2020 年 69 巻 1 号 p. 53-60
    発行日: 2020年
    公開日: 2020/01/21
    ジャーナル フリー
    電子付録

    Background: The severe asthma and severe, uncontrolled asthma (SUA) populations in Japan are not well-studied. We investigated the prevalence of continuously treated severe asthma and SUA patients, their disease burden, and the treatment reality via a Japanese health insurance claims database.

    Methods: Continuously treated asthma patients (patients prescribed inhaled corticosteroids for asthma ≥4 times in the past year) aged ≥17 years at the index date (latest visit between April 2014 and March 2015 for asthma treatment) were included in this analysis (KEIFU study, UMIN000027695). Asthma severity and control status at the index date were defined using modified criteria of ERS/ATS guidelines. Asthma hospitalization, oral corticosteroid (OCS) use, and total medical expenses were calculated using data up to 12 months post-index date.

    Results: We identified 10,579 patients as continuously treated asthma patients. Of these, 823 (7.8%) had severe asthma; 267 (2.5%) and 556 (5.3%) patients had SUA and severe, controlled asthma (SCA), respectively. Compared with SCA and mild to moderate asthma patients, a greater percentage of SUA patients required hospitalization (13.7%, 6.2%, and 3.0%, respectively) and were prescribed OCSs (67.4%, 45.9%, and 16.2%, respectively). Yearly total medical expenses were also greater for SUA patients (mean [standard deviation]: 8346 [12,280], vs 5989 [10,483] and 3422 [8800] USD, respectively).

    Conclusions: The percentages of severe asthma and SUA patients continuously treated in Japan were obtained through this large-scale analysis using a health insurance claims database. SUA patients had greater medical and economic burdens, suggesting more appropriate treatment is required according to the treatment guidelines.

  • Yuka Kimura, Toshiyuki Koya, Takashi Hasegawa, Hiroshi Ueno, Kazutaka ...
    2020 年 69 巻 1 号 p. 61-65
    発行日: 2020年
    公開日: 2020/01/21
    ジャーナル フリー
    電子付録

    Background: Adherence Starts with Knowledge-12 (ASK-12) is a useful indicator of drug adherence. In this study, we analyzed patient background including social and psychological factors in a low-adherence group of patients with asthma defined using ASK-12.

    Methods: From a questionnaire survey for patients with asthma from the Niigata Prefecture, Japan, conducted in the fall of 2016, we enrolled patients who answered all ASK-12 items and underwent a measured respiratory function test within 1 year. The low-adherence group (ASK-12 ≥ 28) was compared with the control group (ASK-12 < 28), and we conducted a cluster analysis of the low-adherence group.

    Results: There were 170 patients in the low-adherence group and 402 patients in the control group. There was a significant difference between age, gender, working status, smoking history, the percentage of forced expiratory volume in one second (%FEV1), asthma control test (ACT), and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) score between the two groups. Logistic analysis revealed that working status (working), % FEV1 (<90%), and PHQ-9 score (>5) were independent factors for the low-adherence group. The cluster analysis identified three clusters in the low-adherence group. Among these, one cluster was characterized by elderly males with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and another by middle-aged nonsmoking females with a depression tendency, had problems with asthma control.

    Conclusions: Several factors were considered to be attributed to low drug-adherence. There were several phenotypes in the low-adherence population correlated with incomplete asthma control. Intervention with drug adherence should be a future goal for asthma treatment.

  • Satsuki Miyajima, Katsunori Shigehara, Ryuta Kamekura, Hiromi Takaki, ...
    2020 年 69 巻 1 号 p. 66-77
    発行日: 2020年
    公開日: 2020/01/21
    ジャーナル フリー
    電子付録

    Background: CXCR5+ T follicular helper (TFH) cells primarily promote B cells to produce an antigen-specific antibody through germinal centers (GCs). TFH cells exist in circulation, and circulating(c) TFH2 cells, a subset of cTFH cells, are able to help naïve B cells produce IgE in healthy individuals. Conversely, IL-10-producing regulatory B (Breg) cells inhibit an accelerated immune response.

    Methods: We investigated the roles of cTFH cells and cBreg cells based on a TH2 response in patients with atopic asthma (AA). Thirty-two patients with AA and 35 healthy volunteers (HV) were enrolled. We examined cTFH cells including their subsets, their expression of ICOS and PD-1, and cBreg cells by flow cytometry and their associations with clinical biomarkers. Plasma levels of CXCL13, which is a counterpart of CXCR5, were also measured using ELISA.

    Results: In patients with AA, cTFH2 cells were increased and cTFH1 cells were decreased compared with those in HV. The expression levels of ICOS on cTFH and their subset cells were elevated and Breg cells were greatly decreased. The plasma levels of CXCL13 in patients with AA were significantly elevated and correlated well with the cTFH2/cBreg ratio. These cells were examined in 10 patients AA before and after inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) treatment. Interestingly, the percentages and numbers of TFH2 and ICOS+ cTFH cells declined after ICS treatment together with improvements in symptoms and clinical biomarkers.

    Conclusions: The percentages and numbers of cTFH2 and ICOS+ cTFH cells might be useful as biomarkers of TH2 typed airway inflammation in patients with AA.

  • Satoshi Yamaga, Yuhki Yanase, Kaori Ishii, Shinichiro Ohshimo, Nobuaki ...
    2020 年 69 巻 1 号 p. 78-83
    発行日: 2020年
    公開日: 2020/01/21
    ジャーナル フリー
    電子付録

    Background: Histamine is a crucial mediator in the development of anaphylaxis. Although histamine is promptly degraded because of its short half-life in plasma, basophils, which release histamine, remain in the blood for days. To explore basophils as a potential marker and their involvement in the pathogenesis of anaphylaxis, we evaluated the intracellular histamine concentration and the degree of basophil activation in anaphylaxis patients.

    Methods: We conducted a case-control study enrolling anaphylaxis patients and healthy controls. Basophil activation was evaluated by flow cytometry using up-regulation of CD203c expression.

    Results: We enrolled 23 patients and measured their blood histamine concentration. Basophil activation was analyzed in seven of 23 patients. The median intracellular histamine concentrations at admission were significantly lower in patients compared with controls (16.4 ng/mL [interquartile range {IQR}, 2.70 to 34.0] vs. 62.3 ng/mL [IQR, 46.0 to 85.1]; p < 0.0001). The median basophil number at admission was also significantly lower in patients compared with controls (2.21 cell/μL [IQR, 0.75 to 12.3] vs. 21.0 cell/μL [IQR, 19.5 to 28.9]; p = 0.027). CD203c expression was not up-regulated in any of the seven patients in vitro, but it was up-regulated in response to anti-IgE stimulation in vitro in two patients at admission and four patients at follow-up.

    Conclusions: Anaphylaxis is associated with a decrease in intracellular histamine, and a reduced number and reactivity of peripheral basophils. Impaired basophil function and a decrease in their number and intracellular histamine levels in the circulation may reflect the underlying mechanism, suggesting that basophils may be a marker of anaphylaxis.

  • Hirokazu Arakawa, Naoki Shimojo, Norito Katoh, Kazumi Hiraba, Yasusuke ...
    2020 年 69 巻 1 号 p. 84-90
    発行日: 2020年
    公開日: 2020/01/21
    ジャーナル フリー
    電子付録

    Background: Pediatric atopic dermatitis (PAD) is a pluricausal disease and is frequently seen in dermatological and pediatric practice. Therefore, it is important to find common views in clinical practice and to promote consensus among practitioners. Aiming to obtain common views among dermatologists and pediatricians and to disseminate them widely in clinical practice, we held the PAD Consensus Forums described herein.

    Methods: Questionnaire surveys of treatment goals and drug therapy were conducted to prepare topics for discussion at the PAD Consensus Forums. Reaching consensus was defined as agreement among at least 70% of the participants.

    Results: As a result of discussion among 24 dermatologists and 25 pediatricians, consensus was obtained on 7 topics. These topics configure 3 consensus of treatment goals (Attainment targets were divided into the short/medium term and the long term. Attainment targets were associated with the primary evaluation domains of the Harmonising Outcome Measures for Eczema (HOME) roadmap, etc.) and 4 consensus of drug therapy (The number of applications of topical anti-inflammatory drugs in the acute phase and selection and ideal intervals between applications of topical anti-inflammatory drugs in proactive therapy, etc.).

    Conclusions: The consensus is expected to help practitioners set appropriate treatment goals in clinical practice and facilitate the choice of drugs for treatment.

  • Naomi Matsumoto, Takashi Yorifuji, Kazue Nakamura, Masanori Ikeda, Hir ...
    2020 年 69 巻 1 号 p. 91-97
    発行日: 2020年
    公開日: 2020/01/21
    ジャーナル フリー
    電子付録

    Background: Although breastfeeding has been well-established as the preferred method for infant nutrition, its prophylactic effects on food allergy remain controversial. Infantile eczema has been linked to food allergy via percutaneous sensitization; however, this relationship has not been considered in previous studies. We aimed to uncover the prophylactic effects of breastfeeding on food allergy, focusing on eczema-mediated percutaneous sensitization.

    Methods: This retrospective cohort study was based on 46,616 children from the Longitudinal Survey of Newborns in the 21st Century in Japan, begun in 2001. We classified participants into three groups based on infant feeding practices (exclusive breastfeeding, partial breastfeeding including only colostrum, and formula feeding only) and used information from at least one outpatient visit for food allergy during two observation periods (age 6-18 months and age 6-66 months) as health outcomes. We performed log-binomial regression analysis adjusted for potential confounders and stratified analysis according to infantile eczema status.

    Results: Compared with formula feeding, partial breastfeeding including only colostrum reduced the risk of food allergy only in children with infantile eczema, (RR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.46, 0.96 for age 6-66 months), whereas exclusive breastfeeding increased this risk in those without infantile eczema (RR = 2.41, 95% CI: 1.40, 4.15, age 6-66 months). The prophylactic effects of breastfeeding on food allergy in the infantile eczema group increased with shorter breastfeeding duration.

    Conclusions: Our results showed that breastfeeding, especially colostrum, had prophylactic effects on food allergy only among high-risk children with infantile eczema whereas prolonged breastfeeding increased the risk of food allergy.

  • Emi Morikawa, Mari Sasaki, Koichi Yoshida, Yuichi Adachi, Hiroshi Odaj ...
    2020 年 69 巻 1 号 p. 98-103
    発行日: 2020年
    公開日: 2020/01/21
    ジャーナル フリー
    電子付録

    Background: Global surveys and cohort studies have been conducted to evaluate the prevalence of allergic disease in childhood, but only a few nationwide surveys have been conducted in Japan. We aimed to report the prevalence of childhood allergic disease in Japan and determine the prevalence distribution by sex and prefecture.

    Methods: In 2015, we conducted a school-based questionnaire survey using the Japanese version of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire among two age groups: primary school students (PS, 6-8 years old) and middle school students (MS, 13-15 years old). The schools were randomly selected from each prefecture.

    Results: Valid responses were obtained from 42,582 PS and 36,638 MS. Among PS and MS, the prevalence of wheeze was 10.2% and 8.2%, that of allergic rhino-conjunctivitis was 18.7% and 26.7%, and that of eczema was 14.6% and 9.7%, respectively. In terms of sex, the prevalence of wheeze and rhino-conjunctivitis was higher in male PS while that of rhino-conjunctivitis and eczema was higher in female MS. In terms of prefecture, there was a two-fold difference in the prevalence of wheeze and eczema and a four-fold difference in the prevalence of rhino-conjunctivitis, with each disease showing different distribution patterns.

    Conclusions: We demonstrated the prevalence of allergic disease among PS and MS in 2015. The prevalence tended to be higher in male PS and female MS. Each disease exhibited different prevalence ranges and distributions. Identifying the factors behind these differences is a topic for future research.

  • Minoru Gotoh, Kimihiro Okubo, Atsushi Yuta, Yukiko Ogawa, Hitoshi Naga ...
    2020 年 69 巻 1 号 p. 104-110
    発行日: 2020年
    公開日: 2020/01/21
    ジャーナル フリー

    Background: There have been no studies of dual administration of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) tablets for perennial and seasonal allergic rhinitis. This trial (JapicCTI-184014) was conducted to investigate the safety profile and immunological response during dual therapy with SQ house dust mite (HDM) and Japanese cedar pollen (JCP) SLIT tablets.

    Methods: This was a multicenter, open-label, randomized trial of 109 Japanese patients with coexisting HDM and JCP allergic rhinitis who had positive tests for HDM- and JCP specific IgE (≥0.7 kU/L). Patients were allocated to receive HDM (N = 54) or JCP (N = 55) SLIT tablets alone for 4 weeks followed by 8 weeks of dual therapy with both SLIT tablets administered within 5 min of each other. Adverse events (AEs), adverse drug reactions (ADRs), and serum IgE and IgG4 specific for HDM (Dermatophagoides farinae, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus) and JCP were recorded.

    Results: The percentage of subjects with AEs and ADRs was similar between the two groups and between the two periods of monotherapy and dual therapy. Most AEs and ADRs were mild in severity, and no serious events were observed. The most common ADRs were local events in the oral cavity. Levels of IgE and IgG4 specific for HDM (D. farinae, D. pteronyssinus) and JCP were increased after treatment with HDM and JCP SLIT tablets, respectively.

    Conclusions: Dual therapy with both SLIT tablets administered within 5 min after 4 weeks of monotherapy with HDM or JCP tablet was well tolerated and induced the expected immunological responses.

  • Junya Ono, Masayuki Takai, Ayami Kamei, Satoshi Nunomura, Yasuhiro Nan ...
    2020 年 69 巻 1 号 p. 111-120
    発行日: 2020年
    公開日: 2020/01/21
    ジャーナル フリー
    電子付録

    Background: Periostin is a matricellular protein belonging to the fasciclin family, playing a role for the pathogenesis of allergic diseases by binding to integrins on cell surfaces. Serum periostin is elevated in various allergic diseases reflecting type 2 inflammation and tissue remodeling so that for allergic diseases, periostin is expected to be a novel biomarker for diagnosis, assessing severity or prognosis, and predicting responsiveness to treatments. We have previously shown that most serum periostin exists in the oligomeric form by intermolecular disulfide bonds.

    Methods: In this study, we examined how periostin forms a complex in serum, whether the periostin complex in serum is functional, and whether the complex formation interferes with reactivity to anti-periostin Abs.

    Results: We found that periostin formed a complex with IgA1 at a 1:1 ratio. The periostin in the serum complex contained at least five different isoforms. However, IgA was not essential for the oligomeric formation of periostin in mouse serum or in IgA-lacking serum. The periostin-IgA complex in human serum was functional, sustaining the ability to bind to αVβ3 integrin on cell surfaces. Moreover, periostin formed the complex with IgA broadly, which interferes the binding of the Abs recognizing all of the domains except the R4 domain to periostin.

    Conclusions: Periostin is a novel member of the IgA-associated molecules. These results are of great potential use to understand the pathological roles of periostin in allergic diseases and, from a practical standpoint, to develop diagnostics or therapeutic agents against periostin.

  • Taisuke Ito, Takahiro Suzuki, Jun-ichi Sakabe, Atsuko Funakoshi, Toshi ...
    2020 年 69 巻 1 号 p. 121-131
    発行日: 2020年
    公開日: 2020/01/21
    ジャーナル フリー

    Background: Alopecia areata (AA) is a tissue-specific autoimmune disease, and interferon (IFN)-γ has been regarded as the key cytokine in the pathogenesis of AA. The clinical observation that AA can occur after viral infection or IFN-α administration implies that IFN-α-producing plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) may be involved in the AA pathogenesis.

    Methods: We generated AA in C3H/HeJ mice by intradermal injection of T cells derived from lymph nodes of AA-bearing syngeneic mice and stimulated IL-2, IL-7, and IL-15. Distribution of IFN-γ producing pDCs were immunohistochemically analyzed. Realtime PCR were also demonstrated to detect the expression of IFN-γ mRNA. Hair follicles were cultured with IFN-α in order to calculate the hair elongation. Imiquimod was employed to induce catagen stage. PDCs were injected into C3H/HeJ mice to initiate AA.

    Results: In this mouse, IFN-α-producing pDCs densely infiltrated around HFs in not only AA lesional but also vicinity of AA lesion. Importantly, intradermal injection of pDCs induced AA lesions. Finally, IFN-α inhibited hair elongation of murine vibrissae and upregulated MHC class I and CXCL10 levels in vitro.

    Conclusions: These findings suggest that IFN-α-producing pDCs initiate AA by inducing apoptosis and increasing Th1/Tc1 chemokine production such as CXCL10, that accumulates Th1/Tc1 cells and result in autoimmune reactions against hair follicles.

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