Allergology International
Online ISSN : 1440-1592
Print ISSN : 1323-8930
ISSN-L : 1323-8930
最新号
選択された号の論文の18件中1~18を表示しています
Editorial
Invited Review Articles
Review Series: Mucus plugs in severe asthma and related airway diseases
  • Carmen Venegas Garrido, Manali Mukherjee, Sarah Svenningsen, Parameswa ...
    2024 年 73 巻 3 号 p. 351-361
    発行日: 2024年
    公開日: 2024/07/06
    ジャーナル フリー

    Airway mucus is a hydrogel with unique biophysical properties due to its primary water composition and a small proportion of large anionic glycoproteins or mucins. The predominant mucins in human mucus, MUC5AC and MUC5B, are secreted by specialized cells within the airway epithelium both in normal conditions and in response to various stimuli. Their relative proportions are correlated with specific inflammatory responses and disease mechanisms. The dysregulation of mucin expression is implicated in numerous respiratory diseases, including asthma, COPD, and cystic fibrosis, where the pathogenic role of mucus has been extensively described yet often overlooked. In airway diseases, excessive mucus production or impaired mucus clearance leads to mucus plugging, with secondary airway occlusion that contribute to airflow obstruction, asthma severity and poor control. Eosinophils and Charcot Leyden crystals in sputum contribute to the mucus burden and tenacity. Mucin may also contribute to eosinophil survival. Other mechanisms, including eosinophil-independent IL-13 release, mast-cell activation and non-type-2 (T2) cytokines, are also likely to participate in mucus pathobiology. An accurate assessment of mucus and its clinical and functional consequences require a thorough approach that includes evaluation of cellular predominance in sputum, airway cytokines and other inflammatory markers, mucus characteristics and composition and structural and functional impact measured by advanced lung imaging. This review, illustrated with clinical scenarios, provides an overview of current methods to assess mucus and its relevance to the choice of biologics to treat patients with severe asthma.

  • Misaki Arima, Keisuke Ito, Tomoe Abe, Tsuyoshi Oguma, Koichiro Asano, ...
    2024 年 73 巻 3 号 p. 362-374
    発行日: 2024年
    公開日: 2024/07/06
    ジャーナル フリー
    電子付録

    Eosinophilic inflammation is primarily characterized by type 2 immune responses against parasitic organisms. In the contemporary human being especially in developed countries, eosinophilic inflammation is strongly associated with allergic/sterile inflammation, and constitutes an undesired immune reaction. This situation is in stark contrast to neutrophilic inflammation, which is indispensable for the host defense against bacterial infections. Among eosinophilic inflammatory disorders, massive accumulation of eosinophils within mucus is observed in certain cases, and is often linked to the distinctive clinical finding of mucus with high viscosity. Eosinophilic mucus is found in a variety of diseases, including chronic allergic keratoconjunctivitis, chronic rhinosinusitis encompassing allergic fungal sinusitis, eosinophilic otitis media, eosinophilic sialodochitis, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis/mycosis, eosinophilic plastic bronchitis, and eosinophilic asthma. In these pathological conditions, chronic inflammation and tissue remodeling coupled with irreversible organ damage due to persistent adhesion of toxic substances and luminal obstruction may impose a significant burden on the body. Eosinophils aggregate in the hyperconcentrated mucus together with cell-derived crystals, macromolecules, and polymers, thereby affecting the biophysical properties of the mucus. This review focuses on the clinically significant challenges of mucus and discusses the consequences of activated eosinophils on the mucosal surface that impact mucus and persistent inflammation.

  • Ana M. Jaramillo, Eszter K. Vladar, Fernando Holguin, Burton F. Dickey ...
    2024 年 73 巻 3 号 p. 375-381
    発行日: 2024年
    公開日: 2024/07/06
    ジャーナル フリー

    Mucus provides a protective barrier that is crucial for host defense in the lungs. However, excessive or abnormal mucus can have pathophysiological consequences in many pulmonary diseases, including asthma. Patients with asthma are treated with agents that relax airway smooth muscle and reduce airway inflammation, but responses are often inadequate. In part, this is due to the inability of existing therapeutic agents to directly target mucus. Accordingly, there is a critical need to better understand how mucus hypersecretion and airway plugging are affected by the epithelial cells that synthesize, secrete, and transport mucus components. This review highlights recent advances in the biology of mucin glycoproteins with a specific focus on MUC5AC and MUC5B, the chief macromolecular components of airway mucus. An improved mechanistic understanding of key steps in mucin production and secretion will help reveal novel potential therapeutic strategies.

Original Articles
  • Hiroshi Ohnishi, Toshihito Otani, Yoshihiro Kanemitsu, Tatsuya Nagano, ...
    2024 年 73 巻 3 号 p. 382-389
    発行日: 2024年
    公開日: 2024/07/06
    ジャーナル フリー
    電子付録

    Background: The efficacy of macrolides in the management of asthma has been studied but remains controversial. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of macrolides in the management of adult patients with asthma.

    Methods: Randomized controlled trials of macrolides used in adult patients with asthma were searched for in MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, and Igaku Chuo Zasshi databases to evaluate the efficacy and safety of macrolides.

    Results: Seventeen reports with macrolide treatment durations ranging from 6 to 48 weeks were included. Macrolides did not reduce exacerbations requiring hospitalization, severe exacerbations, or rescue use of short-acting beta-2 agonist inhalers; improve lung function; decrease peripheral blood or sputum neutrophil counts; or decrease fractional exhaled nitric oxide compared to placebo. Macrolides statistically improved asthma control and quality of life but by less than the minimal clinically important difference. Peripheral blood eosinophil counts as well as serum and sputum eosinophilic cationic protein concentrations were significantly decreased with macrolides compared to placebo. The improvement of asthma symptoms and airway hyperresponsiveness varied by study. The safety profile of macrolides was comparable to that of placebo.

    Conclusions: Although macrolides have some useful clinical aspects, there is not sufficient evidence to recommend their use in the management of adult patients with asthma.

  • Hitomi Ikegami-Tanaka, Naoya Yasokawa, Koji Kurose, Shonosuke Tajima, ...
    2024 年 73 巻 3 号 p. 390-396
    発行日: 2024年
    公開日: 2024/07/06
    ジャーナル フリー
    電子付録

    Background: Asthma and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are prevalent chronic respiratory disorders, which often coexist and interact with each other. Obesity is an important risk factor shared by them. The rate of obesity is lower in Japan versus Western countries. Hence, the co-existence of asthma and OSA has not been investigated in Japan.

    Methods: Ninety-seven outpatients with asthma were recruited. Patients wore a portable monitor for sleep study. Background data, pulmonary function, blood tests, and patient-reported outcomes including gastroesophageal reflux disease, sleepiness, sleep quality, asthma control, cough and respiratory symptoms, and health status, were assessed.

    Results: Of the patients, 19 (19.6 %), 40 (41.2 %), 24 (24.7 %), and 14 (14.4 %) were classified into non-, mild, moderate, and severe OSA groups. Non-OSA patients were younger than those in other groups (p < 0.05). The BMI of patients with moderate and severe OSA, was higher than that of non-OSA patients (p < 0.05). Pulmonary function, FeNO, serum IgE, and the number of peripheral eosinophils were not significantly different between groups. Nonetheless, compared with the other groups, treatment step was the highest, and the Asthma Control Test, Leicester Cough Questionnaire, COPD Assessment Test, and Asthma Health Questionnaire-33 yielded worst scores in the severe OSA group, and predicted the severe OSA after adjustment by BMI.

    Conclusions: Moderate and severe OSA are highly prevalent among patients with asthma in Japan. Pulmonary function did not differ between groups. However, patients with asthma and severe OSA were linked to more asthma treatment, worse asthma control, more symptoms and cough, and worse health status.

  • Yusuke Hayashi, Naoya Tanabe, Hisako Matsumoto, Kaoruko Shimizu, Ryo S ...
    2024 年 73 巻 3 号 p. 397-405
    発行日: 2024年
    公開日: 2024/07/06
    ジャーナル フリー
    電子付録

    Background: Associations of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) with airway wall remodeling and mucus plugs remain to be explored in smokers and nonsmokers with asthma. Ultra-high-resolution computed tomography (U-HRCT), which allows accurate structural quantification of airways >1 mm in diameter, was used in this study to examine whether higher FeNO was associated with thicker walls of the 3rd to 6th generation airways and mucus plugging in patients with asthma.

    Methods: The retrospective analyses included consecutive former smokers and nonsmokers with asthma who underwent U-HRCT in a hospital. The ratio of wall area to summed lumen and wall area was calculated as the wall area percent (WA%). Mucus plugging was visually scored.

    Results: Ninety-seven patients with asthma (including 59 former smokers) were classified into low (<20 ppb), middle (20–35 ppb), and high (>35 ppb) FeNO groups (n = 24, 26, and 47). In analysis including all patients and subanalysis including nonsmokers or former smokers, WA% in the 6th generation airways was consistently higher in the high FeNO group than in the low FeNO group, whereas WA% in the 3rd to 5th generation airways was not. In multivariable models, WA% in the 6th generation airways and the rate of mucus plugging were higher in the high FeNO group than in the low FeNO group after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, smoking status, lung volume, and allergic rhinitis presence.

    Conclusions: Higher FeNO may reflect the inflammation and remodeling of relatively peripheral airways in asthma in both former smokers and nonsmokers.

  • Tomoko Tajiri, Motohiko Suzuki, Hirono Nishiyama, Yoshiyuki Ozawa, Ryo ...
    2024 年 73 巻 3 号 p. 406-415
    発行日: 2024年
    公開日: 2024/07/06
    ジャーナル フリー
    電子付録

    Background: Dupilumab has clinical effects in patients with moderate-to-severe asthma. When considering interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 signaling, effects of dupilumab on airway mucus hypersecretion and airway remodeling are expected, but they have been reported in only a few short-term studies. Its efficacy for airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) remains unknown. We comprehensively assessed the efficacy of dupilumab, especially for subjective and objective measures of airway mucus hypersecretion and airway dimensions in moderate-to-severe asthmatic patients.

    Methods: In 28 adult patients with moderate-to-severe uncontrolled asthma, the comprehensive efficacy of 48-week dupilumab treatment, including the Cough and Sputum Assessment Questionnaire (CASA-Q), radiological mucus scores and airway dimensions on computed tomography (CT), was assessed prospectively. Treatment responsiveness to dupilumab was analyzed.

    Results: With 48-week dupilumab treatment, all four cough and sputum domain scores of CASA-Q improved significantly. Radiological mucus scores and airway wall thickening on CT were significantly decreased. The decreases in mucus scores were significantly associated with improvements in Asthma Control Questionnaire scores, Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ) overall scores, airway obstruction, and airway type 2 inflammation. When defined by > 0.5 improvement in AQLQ overall scores, 18 patients (64%) were identified as responders.

    Conclusions: Dupilumab reversed subjective and objective measures of airway mucus hypersecretion and some aspects of airway remodeling in patients with moderate-to-severe uncontrolled asthma.

  • Takaaki Itonaga, Noriyuki Yanagida, Ken-ichi Nagakura, Tomoyuki Asaumi ...
    2024 年 73 巻 3 号 p. 416-421
    発行日: 2024年
    公開日: 2024/07/06
    ジャーナル フリー
    電子付録

    Background: Low-dose oral food challenge (LD-OFC) is an approach to avoid complete elimination in high-risk patients with wheat allergy (WA). We examined the 3-year prognosis after LD-OFC among patients who passed and failed LD-OFC.

    Methods: Children with immediate-type WA aged ≤6 years with a history of reaction to ≤390 mg of wheat protein underwent their first LD-OFC with 52 mg (baseline LD-OFC). After passing the LD-OFC, children stepped up to 390, 1300, and 5200 mg step-by-step every 3-6 months. After failing LD-OFC, children repeated LD-OFC every 6-12 months. We assessed wheat tolerance defined as consuming 5200 mg without symptoms for 3 years after baseline LD-OFC.

    Results: The median age of 124 children was 2.4 years, and the wheat- and ω-5-gliadin-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels (kUA/L) were 23.6 and 2.1, respectively. Upon baseline LD-OFC, 57% passed (LD-tolerant), whereas 43% failed (LD-reactive). Within 3 years, 38% of the LD-reactive group passed re-administered LD-OFC, and 70% of all participants avoided complete elimination. The percentage of the participants who became capable of consuming 390 mg (87% vs. 18%), 1300 mg (78% vs. 13%), and acquired tolerance (70% vs. 13%) was significantly higher in the LD-tolerant group than in the LD-reactive group (p < 0.001). Predictors of persistent WA in the LD-tolerant group were older age (adjusted odds ratio, 1.63), ω-5-gliadin-specific IgE level (1.62 per 10-fold increase), and other food allergies (1.94).

    Conclusions: LD-tolerant patients frequently acquired wheat tolerance within 3 years. Even if once positive, one-third could pass the re-administered LD-OFC within 3 years.

  • Kenji Toyokuni, Kiwako Yamamoto-Hanada, Limin Yang, Kouhei Hagino, Dai ...
    2024 年 73 巻 3 号 p. 422-427
    発行日: 2024年
    公開日: 2024/07/06
    ジャーナル フリー
    電子付録

    Background: The association between pet exposure in infancy, early childhood eczema, and FLG mutations remains unclear.

    Methods: This was a birth cohort study performed in Tokyo, Japan. The primary outcome was current eczema based on questionnaire responses collected repeatedly from birth to 5 years of age. Generalized estimating equations and generalized linear modeling were used to evaluate the association.

    Results: Data from 1448 participants were used for analyses. Household dog ownership during gestation, early infancy, and 18 months of age significantly reduced the risk of current eczema. Household cat ownership also reduced the risk of current eczema, albeit without statistical significance. The combined evaluation of children from households with pets, be it cats, dogs or both, the risk of current eczema at 1-5 years of age was lower in those with household pet exposure ownership during gestation (RR = 0.59, 95 % CI 0.45-0.77) and at 6 months (RR = 0.49, 95 % CI 0.36-0.68). , Reduced risks of eczema were also observed at 2-5 (RR = 0.52, 95 % CI 0.37-0.73) and 3-5 years of age (RR = 0.50 95 % CI 0.35-0.74) when the respective household pet ownership were evaluated at 18 months and 3 years of age. These protective associations of reduced risk of eczema were only observed in children without FLG mutations.

    Conclusions: Household dog and pet (dog, cat, or both) ownership was protective against early childhood eczema in a birth cohort dataset. This protective association was observed only in children without FLG mutations, which should be confirmed in studies with larger cohorts.

  • Yukiko Katoh, Osamu Natsume, Ryuhei Yasuoka, Satoshi Hayano, Eisaku Ok ...
    2024 年 73 巻 3 号 p. 428-435
    発行日: 2024年
    公開日: 2024/07/06
    ジャーナル フリー
    電子付録

    Background: Washing with water is not inferior to washing with soaps and detergents in children with atopic dermatitis (AD) in remission during the fall-winter seasons. We investigated whether this finding varies during summer based on the type of cleanser (soaps and detergents).

    Methods: This evaluator-blinded, pragmatic, randomized, and non-inferiority study enrolled patients with AD whose eczema was controlled following regular steroid ointment application 2 days/week. For 8 ± 4 weeks, participants washed their upper and lower limbs with a cleanser on one side and with water alone on the other. Each participant chose either a weakly alkaline soap or an acidic detergent. The primary outcome was the Eczema Area and Severity Index (EASI) score at week 8 ± 4.

    Results: The data of 43 of the 47 registered participants were analyzed. The median patient age was 44 (23-99) months; 28 and 15 participants chose weakly alkaline and acidic cleansers, respectively. At week 8 ± 4, EASI scores of the water and cleanser sides were 0.00 (0.00-0.40) and 0.15 (0.00-0.40), respectively (p = 0.74). The difference between both sides was 0.00 (-0.07 to 0.14); the limits of the 95 % confidence interval did not reach the pre-specified non-inferiority margin. No difference was observed in the median Patient-Oriented Eczema Measure score, number of additional steroid ointment applications, and occurrences of skin infections. There were no differences between the cleanser types in any of the results.

    Conclusions: We demonstrated that washing with water was not inferior to that with a cleanser in patients with AD in the maintenance phase during summer, regardless of the type of cleanser.

  • Syuji Yonekura, Yoshitaka Okamoto, Fumiya Yamaide, Taiji Nakano, Kiyom ...
    2024 年 73 巻 3 号 p. 436-444
    発行日: 2024年
    公開日: 2024/07/06
    ジャーナル フリー

    Background: This study aimed to clarify the diagnostic and predictive factors for perennial allergic rhinitis (PAR) onset in children by analyzing the results of the Chiba High-risk Birth Cohort for Allergy study, which examined newborns with a family history of allergies.

    Methods: Overall, 306 pregnant women were recruited. Their newborns were examined by otolaryngologists and pediatric allergists at 1, 2, and 5 years of age. Participants with clinical and laboratory data available at all consultation points were considered eligible.

    Results: Among 187 eligible participants, the prevalence rates of PAR were 2.1%, 4.3%, and 24.1% at 1, 2, and 5 years of age, respectively. AR-specific nasal local findings and eosinophils in nasal smear were observed in a substantial number of patients with PAR at 1 and 2 years of age. Factors present up to 2 years of age that were associated with PAR onset at 5 years of age, in descending order, were as follows: sensitization to house dust mites (HDM), nasal eosinophilia, and sensitization to cat dander. In 44 cases with HDM sensitization, nasal eosinophilia up to 2 years of age achieved a sensitivity of 76.0% and a specificity of 73.7% for predicting PAR onset at 5 years.

    Conclusions: Rhinitis findings and nasal eosinophilia are useful auxiliary diagnostic items for pediatric PAR. Sensitization to HDM and nasal eosinophilia were the most influential factors associated with future PAR onset. A combination of these factors may facilitate the prediction of PAR onset.

  • Yutaka Omatsu, Yumiko Shimizu, Tomoko Haruki, Yoshitsugu Inoue, Dai Mi ...
    2024 年 73 巻 3 号 p. 445-452
    発行日: 2024年
    公開日: 2024/07/06
    ジャーナル フリー

    Background: Atopic conditions are known to be associated with viral and bacterial infections. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the effects of atopic conditions on the severity and recurrence of ocular infections including herpes simplex virus (HSV).

    Methods: This study was performed on 474 consecutive patients with infectious keratitis caused by bacteria, fungus, acanthamoeba, HSV, or varicella-zoster virus. The relationships between the atopic condition and specific infectious pathogens and HSV were determined using real-time PCR.

    Results: Our findings showed that atopic dermatitis (AD) was significantly associated with the incidence of HSV keratitis (odds ratio (OR), 10.2; P = 0.000). Other associations with AD were observed only with bacteria in an adverse manner. HSV proliferation in the lesions of patients with HSV keratitis whose AD was associated with non-infectious atopic blepharitis were significantly greater by 145-folds (P = 0.000). The presence of asthma or allergic rhinitis also increased the HSV DNA copy numbers.

    A recurrence of HSV keratitis was observed in 70 patients (43.2 %), and mean time to recurrence was 1647 days. Cox proportional hazard model indicated that the epithelial type of HSV recurrence but not the stromal type was associated with atopic conditions especially with AD. The factors significantly associated with a recurrence was AD associated with non-infectious atopic blepharitis (HR: 6.11, P = 0.000) and asthma (HR: 3.03, P = 0.025).

    Conclusions: Atopic conditions, especially AD with atopic blepharitis, are significantly associated with the development, increased proliferation, and shorter time to a recurrence on HSV keratitis.

  • Hyun Seung Lee, Heung-Woo Park
    2024 年 73 巻 3 号 p. 453-463
    発行日: 2024年
    公開日: 2024/07/06
    ジャーナル フリー
    電子付録

    Background: Although it has been reported that cellular senescence is important in the pathogenesis of asthma, the differential effects of diesel exhaust particle (DEP)-induced cellular senescence on the development of asthma according to age have not been thoroughly studied.

    Methods: We first confirmed that DEP induced cellular senescence in mouse lungs, and then that DEP-induced cellular senescence followed by intranasal instillation of a low-dose house dust mite (HDM) allergen resulted in murine asthma. Second, we examined age-dependent differential effects using 6-week-old (young) and 18-month-old mice (old), and tested whether the mammalian target of the rapamycin (mTOR) pathway plays an important role in this process. Finally, we performed in vitro experiments using human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC) originating from young and elderly adults to identify the underlying mechanisms.

    Results: DEP induced cellular senescence in the airway epithelial cells of young and old mice characterized by increased senescence-associated beta-galactosidase, S100A8/9, and high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) expressions. DEP-induced cellular senescence with subsequent exposure to a low-dose HDM allergen resulted in asthma in young and old mice. Rapamycin (mTOR pathway inhibitor) administration before DEP instillation significantly attenuated these asthmatic features. In addition, after treatment with a low-dose HDM allergen, S100A9 and HMGB1 over-expressed HBEC originating from young and elderly adults greatly activated co-cultured monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs).

    Conclusions: This study showed that DEP-induced senescence made both young and old mice susceptible to allergic sensitization and resultant asthma development by enhancing DC activation. Public health efforts to reduce DEP exposure are warranted.

  • Noriko Ozaki, Naoaki Sakamoto, Daiki Horikami, Yuri Tachibana, Nanae N ...
    2024 年 73 巻 3 号 p. 464-472
    発行日: 2024年
    公開日: 2024/07/06
    ジャーナル フリー
    電子付録

    Background: Nasal congestion in allergic rhinitis (AR) is caused by vascular hyperpermeability and vascular relaxation of the nasal mucosa. We previously detected high levels of a lipoxygenation metabolite of dihomogammalinolenic acid, 15-hydroxy-8Z,11Z,13E-eicosatrienoic acid (15-HETrE) in the nasal lavage fluid of AR model mice. Here, we investigated the effects of 15-HETrE on vascular functions associated with nasal congestion.

    Methods: We measured 15-HETrE levels in the nasal lavage fluid of ovalbumin-induced AR model mice and nasal discharge of patients with AR. We also assessed nasal congestion and vascular relaxation in mice. Vascular contractility was investigated using isolated mouse aortas.

    Results: Five ovalbumin challenges increased 15-HETrE levels in AR model mice. 15-HETrE was also detected in patients who exhibiting AR-related symptoms. Intranasal administration of 15-HETrE elicited dyspnea-related behavior and decreased the nasal cavity volume in mice. Miles assay and whole-mount immunostaining revealed that 15-HETrE administration caused vascular hyperpermeability and relaxation of the nasal mucosa. Intravital imaging demonstrated that 15-HETrE relaxed the ear vessels that were precontracted via thromboxane receptor stimulation. Moreover, 15-HETrE dilated the isolated mouse aortas, and this effect was attenuated by K+ channel inhibitors and prostaglandin D2 (DP) and prostacyclin (IP) receptor antagonists. Additionally, vasodilatory effects of 15-HETrE were accompanied by an increase in intracellular cAMP levels.

    Conclusions: Our results indicate that 15-HETrE, whose levels are elevated in the nasal cavity upon AR, can be a novel lipid mediator that exacerbates nasal congestion. Moreover, it can stimulate DP and IP receptors and downstream K+ channels to dilate the nasal mucosal vasculature.

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