There have been controversies concerning the issue of “female genital mutilation (FGM)” in international community. This study sheds some light to the controversies by arguing the dispute of “FGM” as a discourse in Michel Foucaultʼs sense and situating it in the politics of the female body and sexuality in post-colonies. By doing this, it shows that the controversies presume the unquestioned premise of the universality of the modern medical science. This paper puts ʻFGMʼ into parentheses, because it considers that the category ʻFGMʼ is not self-evident.
The dispute of “FGM” has been characterized as an opposition between the universalist camp by international organizations and Western feminists who sees it as “a harmful practice and a violation of the human rights of women”, and the cultural relativist camp by anthropologists who view it as one of the local practices of body modification. However, in the 1990s, several studies started to deal with the dispute of “FGM” as a discourse and argued it in terms of the self-representation, the concealment of Western patriarchy, and the feministsʼ complicity with imperialist exploitation.
Considering the studies mentioned above, this study will focus on the medical scientific gaze penetrated into the discourses on “FGM”. Since the 19th century when the institutionalization of modern medical systems was launched in colonies, scholars have clung to categorizing “FGM” from medical scientific viewpoints. The project of categorizing “FGM” in medical terms is culminated in WHOʼs classification of 4 types of “FGM”, subsuming anthropological works and religious discussions. This project might be one of the post-colonial developments of the controlling system by modern medical science. This study aims to overcome the “FGM” controversies by examining the medical scientific gaze that implicitly underpins both universalist and cultural relativist. (264)
The Asian-African Conference was held in Bandung, Indonesia. Scholars and intellectuals have often looked upon the Conference for Asian-African solidarity to fight colonialism, and symbolized “Bandung” as the solidarity of the “Third World”.
However, there remains a much needed contextualization of the Conference with reference to the urban-sociocultural history of Bandung, the capital of West Java Province. This article describes the hidden and under-accounted side of the Conference.
It is imperative that we begin to see Bandung not as a symbol of the Third World solidarity, but as a remnant of colonialism in Indonesia. Looking at the everyday consciousness and cultural practices among the young people living in the colonial city, and focusing on the modern art movement, the counterculture in popular music, and the Islamization within the underground scene, we will find that Bandung was historically orientated towards Western modernity and American culture, and what is a more important aspect of the city’s colonial legacy than what is a typical image of the anti-colonial city.
In that sense, we have to reframe the Conference as dependent upon the historical everyday youth cultural practices in the local context of Bandung. This article provides a new contribution to the understandings of Inter-Asia Cultural Studies on the Conference and Third World Cities.
In contemporary Taiwan, the influence of the 1990s Japanophilia phenomenon is gradually transforming into a generalized reception of Japaneseness. Based on this context, I aim to clarify the relationship between Taiwanese audience and Japaneseness from the reception of Japanese media products. Focusing on the popularity of a Japanese TV drama “Ossan’s Love” I conducted a discourse analysis of related articles posted on the bulletin board system “PTT”, and analyzed how it reflects Taiwanese audience’s gaze toward Japaneseness.
I first reviewed previous studies on Japanophilia with a focus on “the gaze toward Japaneseness” and conceptualized the results under the framework of “the fantasy of Japaneseness”, which refers to a multi-layered, dynamic structure which is continuously shaped by the collective imagination of Japaneseness across generations. I further examined the discourse of “Ossan’s Love” using this framework and clarified the structure of “the fantasy of Japaneseness” reflected in Taiwanese audience’s gaze toward this drama. This structure was constructed and strengthened by the concentration, repetition, modification and conversion of discourse, therefore it was also fluctuating and unstable. It was framed by the following three dimensions. A utopia about homoeroticism/homosexuality and an expectation of an ideal image of the TV drama were clarified from audience’s discourse about the drama’s inner structure. Furthermore, the collective imagination of Japaneseness as an “important Other” was analyzed from the abstracted discourse outside the drama. The fluctuated, self-strengthening and self-recovering characteristic of the discourse reflected in Taiwanese audience’s gaze toward Japaneseneess clearly visualized the structure of “the fantasy of Japaneseness”.
This paper analyzes why James Lawrence and Robert E. Lee give Edward a role of a Drummer Boy in Henry’s nightmare. The model of this Edward is Edward Waldo Emerson, who loves Thoreau dearly, and the drama depicts the close relationship of Edward and Henry. Edward plays the drum for command of soldiers in Henry’s nightmare. This role doesn’t suit Edward’s character. Why does Edward,who seems the last person likely to join the army, have to accept this unsuitable function?
This paper pays attention to the two times that this drama is related to. One is the time when this drama was written, and the other is the time in which this drama is situated. Furthermore, this paper pays attention to the evaluation and popularity of Henry David Thoreau in the 1960s and 1970s, when many young people participated in the anti-war movements against the Vietnam War. Jail asks its audience the meaning of identity and disobedience. And the problems of the Vietnam War can be found in contradiction of the role of Edward as a drummer, or the spirit of the different drummer, of which Walden explains. In a satirical way, Jail insists that the spirit of the different drummer should revive again in the mind of people who stand up against the violence of the Vietnam War. Jail, which has been performed in Universities and nonprofit theaters since the Vietnam War, can be seen as another way to call for “Civil Disobedience.”
Lawrence and Lee produced the opportunity for people today to encounter Henry again and recognize
his discussion as their own issue.
This study is positioned at the intersection of the philosophical and linguistic arenas multimodally analyzing para/linguistic information. In this study, I explore the representation of sexual minorities in the Japanese media, including variety shows and kids’ cartoon shows. Based on the theories of Judith Butler and Michel Foucault, I examine features of representations of sexuality, dynamically produced power, and ideologies utilizing discourse analysis. My research questions are: 1) How is the relevance of representations revealed within different types of shows? and 2) How do ideological strategies work on representations and how is the “subversion” of representations possible? As a result of the analysis, I revealed that although there are similarities within different types of media, new (non/fictional) characters are making changes to representations and these changes generate “subversion” even though seemingly stable representations are produced from different (and multilayered) ideological strategies.
After World War II, between France and Cameronian ‘nationalists’ happened a conflict called the ‘hidden war’ by some historians. This war has been truly concealed by either post-colonial Cameroon or former colonial state France. In consideration of this epistemological problem, this paper tries to clarify different approaches taken by Cameroonian writers to write the novel about this hidden past. Under the condition that the state define what should be the historical truth, their writings would be taken for the intervention against the History made by the state.
To this purpose, we’ll verify at first Mongo Beti’s political position. After being forbidden to publish a political reportage about conditions of colonial domination, he took, in the 1970s, his novel to be a way to say euphemistically those conditions.
We’ll then point out two noticeable points found in novels written by writers who were born after the independence of the country. First point is that they emphasize the role of women in the struggle for independence. Second one is that they often choose confidential conversations as the platform for their stories.
Finally, we’ll discuss Max Robe’s Confidences which has these two characters at the same time. This novel calls into question the intertwining between the past of war and the identity of the author who lives in a post-colonial society. We’ll assert then that author’s plural identities would be able to carry on the past in a different way from those who want to make some memories their own properties.