In this paper, we review studies on children in infancy, early, and middle childhood which were previously published in the Japanese Journal of Educational Psychology, the Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology, the Japanese Journal of Psychology, and Japanese Psychological Research from July 2015 to June 2016. Research presentations from the 58th annual meeting of the Japanese Association of Educational Psychology, as during the previous year, focused on children's relationships with others. The perspective of children's relationships with others has increasingly become recognized as an important issue due to the many studies addressing this theme. However, these tacitly assumed perspectives have paid little attention to the developmental period of early and middle childhood. Therefore, this paper reviews these studies by focusing on the perspective of children's relationships with others through early and middle childhood. In reviewing the studies, the author highlights the similarities and differences between early and middle childhood. Finally, future prospects are discussed.
In this paper, developmental studies from adolescence to senescence published in Japan between July 2015 and June 2016 are reviewed. These studies were published in six journals, including the Japanese Journal of Educational Psychology and the Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Japanese Association of Educational Psychology. The topics and methods of the studies are examined from a developmental perspective and are classified into five domains: (1) self and personal traits; (2) interpersonal relationships; (3) time perspective and career development; (4) school and the workplace; and (5) adjustment and mental health. The resulting review of these studies identified new knowledge in several key areas, including developmental characteristics, developmental changes, and developmental processes. Finally, the implications of these findings for future research are discussed. The findings suggest that previous reviews continue to be relevant even today.
In this paper, research trends in teaching and learning during the period July 2015 to June 2016 are reviewed and future perspectives are also discussed. Many teachers experience difficulty in providing appropriate explanatory practices in the classroom, which has been an ongoing problem in the field of teaching and learning research awaiting a solution. Therefore, explanatory practices are focused on, and current research trends in teaching and learning, which form the basis for explanatory practices, are reviewed. These trends are reviewed from the viewpoint of the support model. The review consists of five sections: (1) the role of explanations in the classroom, (2) poor comprehension and maladaptive learning in the classroom, (3) strategies for explaining and comprehension, (4) explanatory practices according to the school subject, and (5) developing the ability of explaining. Additionally, implications of the above trends are discussed in light of research trends during the past 30 years, and future perspectives are suggested. Finally, the production of aporia by explanatory practices is discussed from the original perspective of explanation, and principles for advancing research on this topic are suggested. It is concluded that research in teaching and learning could support explanatory practices.
The present article aims to review social psychology studies in the field of educational psychology mainly published between July 2015 and June 2016, and to examine the research and statistical methods used in them. In the first half of the paper, the themes and research methods used in the social psychology studies presented at the 58th annual meeting of the Japanese Association of Educational Psychology held in 2016 are reviewed. The themes and total number of studies were found to be nearly the same as usual, and a majority of studies were found to have adopted questionnaire methods. Furthermore, the articles published in the Japanese Journal of Educational Psychology during the aforementioned period are also reviewed. On the basis of these reviews, research and statistical methods are discussed in the second half of the paper in terms of scale construction, online surveys, multiple regression analysis, and pretest-posttest design. Finally, some proposals are put forward for improving future research.
The focus of this article is on reviewing studies on personality, including self and identity, that were published and/or reported over the period from July 2015 to June 2016. It aims to discuss current trends and challenges in this research area, as well as to suggest future perspectives and further developments on personality research. All of the research studies were arranged within a framework along four view-points: (1) individual differences related to behavior, (2) studies on mechanisms and processes of psychological adjustment or psychological well-being, (3) reconsideration or reevaluation of concepts on personality traits, and (4) formation process of self and identity. The following three points were found to be current research trends in personality research: (1) issues appearing to be at opposite poles were dealt with as issues placed in an independent dimension, (2) the coining of many scales, and (3) some studies taking social/cultural contexts into consideration. Based on the results of the review, the author suggests the following future perspectives on personality research: a divergence of researchers’ perspectives in approaching psychological issues, further developments on personality research taking social/cultural contexts into account, and an increase in research conducted by research project teams.
The purpose of this study is to discuss research trends and other issues occurring in the field of clinical psychology related to educational psychology during the period July 2015 to June 2016. In the first half of the paper, the trends and issues are discussed from the perspective of the presentations delivered at the 58th meeting of the Japanese Association of Educational Psychology. In the second half of the paper, a total of 56 articles from three major psychology journals are selected and reviewed from the perspectives of psychological problems, assessment, psychological support, and professional education. In the last section, issues arising from the discussion are presented as a challenge and basis for future research.
In January 2014, Japan ratified the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. "Reasonable accommodation" refers to necessary and appropriate modification and adjustments not imposing a disproportionate or undue burden, where needed in a particular case, to ensure to persons with disabilities the enjoyment or exercise on an equal basis with others of all human rights and fundamental freedoms. In this paper, we focus on ICT utilization as a reasonable accommodation for children with learning disabilities. At first, we examine the latest knowledge on the reasonable accommodation and privacy for children with learning disabilities. Next, we focus on trends in assessment research for eligibility in RTI research and fluency evaluation of academic skills. Additionally, we introduce pedagogical research as the next stage in the introduction of ICT to children with learning disabilities.
In this paper, articles and books are reviewed within the field of school psychology published in Japan between July 2015 and June 2016. It was found that various research studies were carried out not only on secondary and tertiary psycho-educational services for bullying, non-attendance, and maladjustment to school life, but also on primary services such as better lessons and psycho-education, collaboration of helpers, and the professional growth of teachers. It is suggested that these studies could support and promote the three policies of “School as Team.” For example, research on better lessons and psycho-education might contribute to the clarification of concepts of active learning and teaching methods; research on collaboration of helpers might contribute to building a system for support services through showing the roles of teachers, psychologists, and social workers; and research on the professional growth of teachers might contribute to promoting the professional development of teachers and staff.
This study reviews research trends in psychometrics and educational evaluation within the context of Japan. We searched the major studies published between July 2015 and June 2016 in the field and classified them into four main categories, as follows: “factor analysis scaling,” “Item Response Theory (IRT) scaling,” “educational evaluation,” and “statistical theory for psychological scaling.” Through the review, we observed a variety of problems within the four categories: (a) In “factor analysis scaling,” the study’s validity is questionable and confirmatory factor analysis was not adopted in some studies; (b) In “IRT scaling,” the fundamental study of model fit, the measurement error of the scaled score, equating, and item or test characteristic statistics were not sufficiently reported; (c) In “educational evaluation,” there is a shortage of experts in psychometrics; and (d) In “statistical theory for psychological scaling,” more discussion is needed regarding how to utilize Bayesian modeling in psychological studies.
Active learning has become a widespread teaching method used in all levels of education since the government curriculum guidelines were revised. Nevertheless, active learning is an umbrella term that can include pedagogical approaches, course designs, various teaching strategies, and a number of learning activities. Therefore, depending upon the context of how it is used, the meaning of active learning will differ. There are two commonly used pedagogical approaches in active learning: cooperative learning and collaborative learning. These two approaches utilize very similar forms of learning activities and are thus often confused by teachers. Cooperative learning aims at relational development among students through successful learning experiences with one other. In contrast, collaborative learning aims at deepening students’ understanding of concepts, as well as developing their learning skills by designing an interactive learning environment based on the theory of learning sciences. Although the form of learning activities is nearly identical, the purpose of these two approaches differs. This article suggests that researchers should design/conduct their research and interpret the results with an understanding of instructional purposes.
III Educational Psychology and Practical Activities
This paper examined a number of studies on the services available for international students in order to take a look at the challenges Japanese higher education institutions face as they seek to foster a campus climate to meet the diverse needs of their students. The necessary improvements of on-campus services for international students attending Japanese universities are considered in reference to a multicultural counseling model that was developed and implemented in the United States. Culturally competent interventions that support international students' cross-cultural adjustments are important. At the same time, assessing the needs of the campus community as a whole and facilitating change at various levels is also crucial. Organizational initiatives to produce system-level change and educational practices that positively influence host students' attitudes toward cross-cultural interaction are important as well. Researchers in educational psychology can contribute to the development of a positive campus climate for diversity by generating models that fit the context of Japanese university contexts based on practical studies. The development of scales that can assess the needs of the campus community and evaluate the outcomes of interventions is also needed.
Recently, the complexity of college and university environments in Japan has been on the rise. In particular, the issue of how to support students who do not seek help from student counseling services, despite experiencing difficulties, has become a major concern for student affairs departments. This paper reviews contemporary knowledge about college students seeking help from student counseling services and offers suggestions for improving this knowledge and practice. A college student counseling model is proposed that integrates the process of help-seeking behavior with the theory of planned behavior and perspectives of school psychology for the purpose of linking research with practice. Further directions for research and practice in college student counseling are discussed from the perspective of help-seeking.
This paper presents a critique of the common view of psychological studies in education. These studies generally focus exclusively on teaching method, but fail to examine the influence of the content or quality of knowledge on teaching and learning processes in the classroom. We argue not only for the importance of the interaction between methods and contents, but rather insist that the quality of the content knowledge teachers understand be taken into account in the study of teaching and learning processes. Further, the bottom-up approach to classroom practices, in which a particular lesson of a particular content taught by a particular teacher is examined, is necessary for such studies. These studies, although focused on a particular content, will then produce fresh and generalizable insights in teaching and learning processes.
V The 58th Meeting of the Japanese Association of Educational Psychology