This paper reviews the studies on children in infancy, early and middle childhood in Japanese Journal of Educational Psychology, Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology, Japanese Journal of Psychology, and Japanese Psychological Research published between July 2014 and June 2015. In the 57th annual meeting of the Japanese Association of Educational Psychology, the number of researches on children’s social development was relatively high. Children’s social development is also an important area for study due to social problems surrounding the children. Therefore, this paper focuses on the studies of children’s social relationships. These studies are classified into the following three categories and reviewed: social development, self development and cognitive development. The author also points out the importance of the social-historical perspective in the developmental studies and the necessity of reconsidering a developmental theory by facing the social reality such as poverty of children.
This article reviewed developmental studies on adolescence, adulthood and old age, published between July 2014 and June 2015 in Japan. In the review, studies were classified into five categories: self, interpersonal relationships, adjustment and mental health, career development, and others. Studies on self include those on identity development of adolescents, self-esteem and self-concept, generationality, and psychological development during child-rearing. Regarding interpersonal relationships, some studies researched the issues of marital relationship such as factors related to the duration of marriage and the relations with family functioning. In the section of adjustment and mental health, a number of studies on school life and adjustment in adolescence were reported. These studies investigated school events, school articulation, bullying, and delinquency in relation to social adjustment and mental health. In career development, there were studies which discussed developmental meaning of career education, occupational attitudes, and social participation. In addition, other studies investigated developmental changes in cognitive functioning and personality from adolescence to senescence. Lastly, issues and future prospect in developmental studies on adulthood and later life were discussed.
This article aims (a) to review the studies on individual differences including research on personality traits published and/or reported over the period from July 2014 to June 2015, (b) to discuss the current trends and challenges in this research area, and (c) to suggest future perspectives and further developments on personality and individual differences research. Since the work of James Heckman, the focus of attention has been on detailed investigations on the personality (non-cognitive skills) development and personality changes due to educational interventions. In this paper, the author first reviews research findings on the Big Five, self-control related variables (e.g., impulsivity, and delay of gratification), and other individual differences variables (e.g., cognitive abilities, and self-esteem). Second, the author reviews and discusses the findings on links between personality traits and physical, mental, and social health variables. Third and finally, the author proposes a strategy for future development from five perspectives (in Japanese alphabetical order of) Anchoring vignettes, Interactions, Unique relationships, Environmental Effects, and Other reports, and discusses several challenges and expectations on personality and individual differences research from three standpoints.
This paper provides an overview of research trends observed in social psychology of education from July 2014 to June 2015. First, summarization of the studies presented at the 57th annual meeting of the Japanese Educational Psychological Association held in August 2015 shows that the following categories were presented frequently: “interpersonal relationships,” “teachers,” “adjustment,” and “social skills and sociability.” Lately, these four categories have consistently occupied top positions. Research themes to be kept eye on their future trends include active learning and adult education. Next, the author reviews social psychology of education studies appertaining to the categories of “interpersonal relationships,” “adjustment,” and “teachers,” in academic journals. In particular, the author discusses the characteristics of individual studies, as well as future developments with research methods, data collection and the provision of findings to school rooms in mind. Other topics of discussion include issues that should be addressed at the academic society as a whole.
This article aims to consider how the current studies on learning and instruction can contribute to learning appropriate for the 21st century. Based on the recent discussions on 21st-century-style learning in the educational circle, the author reviews the publications in the past year by classifying them into three types: cognitive process of learning, self-regulated learning, and collaborative learning. As for the cognitive process of learning, it is revealed that the number of researches on knowledge acquisition and memory is less than that of those on thinking, problem-solving and linguistic expressions. Many studies on linguistic expressions, on the other hand, suggest concrete and practical implications on nurturing the communication competency. The researches on self-regulated learning suggest that studies to discover adaptive aspects in maladaptive learning behaviors can bring about practical proposals. The focus of attention in the researches on collaborative learning seems to be changing from figuring out the function of collaboration to searching for influence factors and developing practical lessons using collaborative learning. Finally, the author proposes future directions the studies should take to put the 21st-century-style learning and instruction into practical use.
This article reviews the recent trends in measurement, evaluation and research methods for educational psychology in Japan in the past year. In order to facilitate the course of discussion, the topics we argue are classified into six issues: “Psychological Scales,” “Examination and Test,” “Quantitative Research,” “Statistical Analysis and Theory,” “Education in Psychometrics,” and “Other Researches”. We point out that a shortage of experts, both in training and research, in educational measurement and psychometrics, and problems with psychometrics education underlie the current problems seen in researches and practices of related research fields. We also stress that “training experts by experts” is essential.
This article addresses two current topics on clinical psychology in Japan. In the first half, the author discusses on trends and issues in clinical psychology. First of all, the author reviews the articles from the division of clinical psychology in Annual Report of Educational Psychology in Japan, published since 1997 and confirms how clinical psychology should be. Then, the author points out the importance of fully understanding the knowledge of clinical psychology, and argues the need of education in evidence literacy and that of case study. The author also expresses his expectation for researches on psychologists themselves. In the latter half, the author reviews 45 articles in four journals published between July 2014 and June 2015.
This review describes the latest effort and agenda in the practice study of the Special Needs Education mainly in the recent school fields. It is important to assess and grasp the characteristics of the developmental disability in order to understand such children. Studies on the executive functioning enjoy particularly huge popularity. In consultation support activities, there are many reports of counseling on ‘Developmental Disability,’ ‘School Refusal,’ and ‘Students’ seeking advice.’ Approaches to the self-understanding of individuals with developmental disability attracts particularly huge attention. Consultation on and cooperation with parents and teachers are effective at school. Supports for both learning and behavior (Social Skills Training & Cognitive Behavioral Therapy) and aid for the school adaptation are important in the education of individuals with developmental disability.
This article reviews trends and issues in studies on school psychology published between July 2014 and June 2015. Many findings have been accumulated in studies on school psychology. That said, the scope of the studies is so wide and interrelated with other fields that it has been pointed out that it is hard to get a whole picture of the accumulated findings of the studies. In order to solve this issue, it is necessary to organize the findings by setting up different analytical frameworks. And this article employs the ecological system theory to classify the findings in a comprehensive and unique way. The results are grouped into the following categories: the microsystem, the mesosystem, the exosystem, the macrosystem, and the chronosystem. The classification finds that this year sees many microsystem studies and few other studies, which shows that less emphasis is placed on the environment where children grow up. In conclusion, it is important to make school education fit the social context and study each of the five systems equally, to integrate the findings so that the knowledge is going to be used in a coordinated manner.
II Measurement Issues in Large-Scale Educational Assessment
This article provides an overview of recent international trends in large-scale educational assessment and relevant issues in educational measurement. The literature indicates that the design, administration, and functions of large-scale assessment are changing dramatically, due to the changes in measurement content and method that reflect evolving societal needs. This in turn raises various measurement issues such as concerns with validity and efficient processing and psychometric modeling of complex data. While the successful implementation of large-scale assessment in its most advanced form is still largely ideal with many issues to be addressed, research and practice in line with the overall trends are emerging. Implications for assessment practice in Japan are also discussed.
We are at a big turning point in moral education now. New moral education system will start in 2018-2019 school year for elementary schools, and in 2019-2020 school year for junior high schools, respectively. Moral education has been treated not as a subject but as a study area, for a long time. However, a lesson of moral education will be “special subject” in the next national curriculum. The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology has clarified the goals of moral education and lessons of moral education, requiring teachers to improve teaching methods in moral education to be more efficient. In this paper, the author surveys recent psychological researches on morality and moral education conducted mainly in Japan and considers how those research findings can contribute to the practice of moral education and moral education classes. The survey reveals that there are researches on moral judgement, long-term comparison of children and youth in their morality, empathy, the influence of emotion on moral recognition, overseas moral education and lesson of moral education. The author also considers how we can apply those researches to the moral education. Finally, the author discusses the need of further basic and practical research on morality and moral education were discussed.
This paper aims to study the social issues concerning school education from social-psychological view point. We consider the current state of social-psychological researches on the social issues, and make the future perspective. First, the social issues (researches) are divided into 6 categories as follows: “Teaching and learning,” “Human relations and interpersonal relations,” “Development of children’s morality,” “School-class management and leadership of teachers,” “Home, welfare, and school education,” “Disaster and social activities of children”. After briefly explaining the social background for the “social issues” of each category, we analyze the studies by picking up psychological researches related to each category. To sum up the analysis, we start by stating the overview of the entire study. We look into the future of educational and social psychology from the following viewpoints: “Educational and social-psychological studies in social context,” “Studies of out-of-school education.” “Development in qualitative researches,” “Researches and their applications to social practices.”
IV Educational Psychology and Practical Activities
Studies on social and emotional learning (SEL) as a university preventive intervention have been progressed in Japan. This article focuses on implementation and sustaining of SEL programs in schools. After (1) briefly explaining SEL and its related concepts, (2) the article reviews research-related concepts in the studies on implementation and sustaining of SEL programs in USA and European countries. The review consists of two major issues: Showing evidence of SEL, and implementing and sustaining SEL programs in schools. Based on this overview, the article proposes future efforts in exploring implementation and sustaining of SEL in Japan in these two major issues: (3) As for the verification of evidence in learning processes, the article calls for the process evaluation and consideration of the validity appropriate for the Japanese educational situation. Finally, (4) the author proposes Anchor Point (the base of system structuring) Planting approach to effectively implement and sustain SEL programs in a teacher-student system, a school system, a junior high school district system, and a board of education system, in which several anchor points are explained respectively.
V The 57th Meeting of the Japanese Association of Educational Psychology
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