The present authors were unable to find any previously published research that focused on differences in the quality of help seeking and avoidance of help seeking for peer harassment. A newly developed instrument, the Seeking Help with Peer Harassment from Friends and Teachers Scale, which was based on 4 qualitatively different strategies (i.e., autonomous help seeking, dependent help seeking, avoidance of help seeking, and pretending not to be harassed), was used to investigate how middle school students used these strategies to address peer harassment. Factor analysis revealed that the scale was comprised of 3 factors: autonomous help seeking, dependent help seeking, and pretending not to be harassed. Cluster analysis of the scores was used to classify the students into 6 groups. An analysis of the features of those groups suggested the following 2 possibilities: (a) there are 2 types of students: those who do not seek help and those who pretend not to be victims of peer harassment and do not seek help, and (b) middle school students do not consistently use a particular help-seeking strategy, but rather use various strategies in parallel, depending on the helper.
The present research tested the hypothesis that the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) has 2 psychological dimensions: Negative Self-Esteem (NSE), which is measured by how much participants disagree with reversed items, and Positive Self-Esteem (PSE), which is measured by how much participants agree with non-reversed items. In Study 1, a factor analysis was conducted on 5 independent data sets from people in different age groups, ranging from university students to people in their seventies. The results supported the hypothesis that the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale may have 2 factors. In Study 2, students from 2 junior high schools completed the survey; the results validated the 2-factor structure of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The results of Study 2 also indicated that psychological stress was negatively correlated with the Negative Self-Esteem factor, i.e., the more strongly the students disagreed with the reversed items, the less psychological stress they reported. In Study 3, junior high school students completed the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire; the results indicated that hostility was more negatively correlated to Negative Self-Esteem than to Positive Self-Esteem. These results support the hypothesis that the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale has 2 dimensions, which could be called Approving Positive Self-Image and Denying Negative Self-Image.
The present study developed a scale to measure individual differences in beliefs about failure in academic activities. In order to address the issue of children’s vulnerability in dealing with abstract questions, we proposed a higher-factor model that hypothesizes an entire failure belief as a common factor in 4 situations: (a) engaging in a task, (b) making a statement in class, (c) taking a regular test, and (d) taking an entrance examination. In the main study, 984 junior high school students from the 7th to 9th grades participated in a questionnaire survey. The results of an exploratory factor analysis supported a 2-factor model consisting of “utilization-possibility of failure” and “fearfulness toward failure” in each of the 4 situations. In addition, fit indices of the hypothesized higher-order factor model satisfied the applicable criteria for acceptability. Correlation analysis provided evidence supporting the validity of the scale. We discuss possibilities for future study and educational practices by using the developed scale.
The present study aimed to examine young children’s mental negotiations between themselves and others, and their development. In interviews, the participants in the study, 115 children (61 girls, 54 boys, ages 3: 8 to 6:1), were told to imagine that they were in dilemma situations in which their own needs and the needs of others were in conflict, and asked, “If you were...”. Four scenes were presented to each child, 2 of them were with a friend; the other 2 were with the child’s mother. In addition, the children’s cognitive and social development was assessed. The results suggested the following: (a) the children placed more priority on themselves in more serious situations, such as when a friend asked to borrow a treasured item, (b) the 6-year-olds prioritized others and inhibited their own needs more than the 3 to 4-year-old children did, (c) more of the children in the older group considered both themselves and others in the “treasure” scenario, compared to the younger children, and (d) both cognitive and social development influenced the children’s capacity to consider both themselves and others.
The purposes of the present research were to investigate differences in the use of learning strategies and in perceived usefulness of learning strategies in the subject areas of mathematics, languages, and social studies, and to assess the relations between strategy use and perceived usefulness, and also relations among the 3 subjects. The participants, 257 high school students, completed measures of learning strategy usage and perceived usefulness. A one-way ANOVA revealed that organization strategies and elaboration strategies were not much used in mathematics, and that lesson induction strategies were not used much in languages, but that, even so, these strategies were perceived as being fairly useful. Path analyses revealed that perceived usefulness was positively related to strategy use in all the learning strategies in the 3 subjects, and that the relation between languages and mathematics was weaker than that between languages and social studies, and between social studies and mathematics. These findings suggest that future intervention studies might focus on teaching different learning strategies in different subjects, based on the differences among subject areas.
The purpose of the present study was to explore factors relating to meal-related quality of life (QOL), focusing on junior high school students’ family meals. Previously published studies of children’s meal-related quality of life examined only the relations between elements of individuals’ eating habits. In the present study, 235 junior high school students kept diaries of their meals for 1 week. Their reports of their breakfasts and dinners were analyzed with multiple regression analyses, which showed that factors relating to meals (i.e., the number of dishes served, the number of family members eating together, and the frequency of the students helping to prepare the meal or clear the table) predicted meal-related quality of life, mediated by mealtime communication and the students’ perception of family meals (e.g., “I want to have meals with my family as often as possible”). These findings suggest that increasing the number of dishes served, the number of family members who eat together, and the extent that junior-high-school-age children help with meal preparation and cleaning duties might increase mealtime communication and improve students’ perception of their family’s meals, which, in turn, is likely to improve junior high school students’ meal-related quality of life.
The present article reports development of the Self-report Proactive & Reactive Aggressiveness Scales for University students (SPRAS-U), and an examination of its reliability and validity. In addition, associations among the subscales of the instrument and physical, verbal, and relational aggressive behavior were investigated. The original version of the instrument was comprised of 75 items in 9 subscales (4 subscales assessing proactive aggressiveness and 5 assessing reactive aggressiveness). Students (N=616; 294 men, 322 women) at 1 junior college and 5 universities completed 1 of 2 types of questionnaires. The results of exploratory factor analysis of their responses identified 9 hypothetical factors. These 9 subscales had adequate reliability (α coefficients above .70). Most of the reactive aggressiveness subscales were moderately positively correlated with hostility, irritability, duration of anger, and retaliatory intent, whereas most of the proactive aggressiveness subscales were moderately positively correlated with the primary psychopathy and domination subscales of the Functional Aggression Scale (FAS), and significantly negatively correlated with emotional empathy. These relationships demonstrate the concurrent validity of the Self-report Proactive & Reactive Aggressiveness Scales for University students. Multiple regression analysis indicated significant associations between physical aggression and, mainly, the reactive aggressiveness subscales, between verbal aggression and, mainly, the proactive aggressiveness subscales, and between relational aggression and both the reactive and proactive aggressiveness subscales.
The present research examined relationships between high school students’ beliefs, learning strategies, and academic achievement in learning English. The participants were 723 students from all grades at a high school in western Japan. Factor analysis of beliefs about learning revealed that quantity orientation and strategy orientation were subject-general beliefs, whereas traditional orientation and application orientation were subject-specific beliefs. Factor analysis of learning strategies also revealed 2 indirect strategies: metacognitive strategy and social strategy, and 4 direct strategies: organization strategy, imaging strategy, repetition strategy, and vocalization strategy. A path analysis revealed that subject-general beliefs contribute to subject-specific beliefs and indirect strategies contribute to direct strategies. Also it revealed 2 causal relations: the subject-general learning process, in which subject-general beliefs affect indirect strategies, and the subject-specific learning process, in which subject-specific beliefs influence direct strategies and academic achievement. These results suggest the importance of scrutinizing English learning from both viewpoints: subject-general and subject-specific, and that there should be a focus on the subject-general learning process when attempting to improve the whole learning behavior, and on the subject-specific learning process when attempting to improve academic achievements in English learning.
A search of the published literature identified few studies that have examined the mechanisms by which parenting and children’s perceptions of patenting behavior predicted antisocial behavior through both adaptive and maladaptive social-information processing. The present study tested the hypothetical model that parenting attitudes are manifested in actual parenting behavior, and that children represent their image of their parents’ parenting attitudes through their perception of their parents’ behavior. The children’s images of their parents’ parenting attitudes would then affect the children’s antisocial behavior through both adaptive and maladaptive social-information processing. Data were obtained from pairs of 327 junior high school students (193 seventh graders, 79 eighth graders, and 55 ninth graders) from one school and their parents (of whom 303 were their mothers), and 471 university undergraduates from 2 universities and their parents (of whom 422 were their mothers). The children and their parents provided retrospective reports of their perception of parenting and discipline during the children’s early childhood. The children’s social rules and anti-social cognitive biases, such as cognitive distortion, and their general beliefs about aggression were also assessed. The undergraduates also provided retrospective self-reports of their experiences with antisocial behavior during their high school years. The results of structural equation analyses conformed to the proposed model for both the junior high school and undergraduate samples. The present findings suggest that parents might need to confirm that their parenting behavior is perceived by their children as the parents intend.
In the present study, school-wide social skills training (SST), which was focused on emotion, was conducted 6 times at a junior high school, in order to examine effects of the training on the social skills and resilience of the students. The participants in the study were 6 classes of 7th graders (104 boys, 90 girls), 5 classes of 8th graders (96 boys, 94 girls, and 6 classes of 9th graders (117 boys, 94 girls) from 1 public school. Before and after implementation of the social skills training, data were collected from 365 practicing students and 388 non-practicing students. Analysis of these data suggested that the boys’ prosocial behavior and relation-orientedness improved, but no differences were found in the girls’ data. Prosocial behavior increased in the 8th graders who were in classes in which the training was implemented, and withdrawal behavior improved. Furthermore, comparisons of the students’ social skill levels found no differences between the low and intermediate scoring groups; however, in the high scoring group, a reduction in social skills and relation-orientedness was suppressed in classes in which training had been conducted.
Tabata (2016) implemented a skills training program aimed at developing university students’ teamwork competency and demonstrated the efficacy of the program as measured immediately after the training. The present study was conducted to examine the efficacy of the training 9 months after the training. Participants were university seniors, divided into a group receiving the training (n=29; 8 men, 21 women), and a no-training control group (n=25, 8 men, 17 women). The participants completed self-report scales before the training and 9 months after the training. The scales assessed general social skills and competency at teamwork measured communication, team orientation, backup, monitoring, and leadership. The results from the post-training assessment indicated that the participants in the training program showed more improvement in their self-reported social skills and also improved more on many of the sub-elements of teamwork competency, compared to the control group. This suggests that, 9 months after the training, this training program continued to be effective to some extent.