The purposes of the present study were to develop a scale to assess fear of negative evaluation by others, and to examine the scale’s reliability and validity, as well as to investigate the relation between fear of negative evaluation by others and adjustment. Fifth- through ninth-grade students (N=585) participated in Study 1. The results indicated that the Fear of Negative Evaluation by Others Scale consisted of 3 subscales: fear of negative evaluation by friends, fear of negative evaluation by parents, and fear of negative evaluation by teachers. The results also confirmed the reliability and validity of the scale. Fifth- through ninth-grade students (N=1,226) participated in Study 2. Multiple regression analysis indicated that the 3 subscales were differentially related to indices of maladjustment, and that the fear of negative evaluation by friends was especially related to a wide range of indices of maladjustment. The results also suggested that the fear of negative evaluation by teachers restrained the antisocial tendencies of the boys when they were in school. Thus, interventions that reduce the fear of negative evaluation by others might not always be an ideal strategy.
The experience of being bullied is said to have long-term effects on the victim’s mental and physical state. Previous studies have indicated that the experience of being bullied in childhood influences self-esteem, trait anxiety, depression, and loneliness later. The present research examined influences of the experience of having been bullied in elementary and secondary school on the well-being of university students. The participants (N=208, 76% of whom were in their freshman year) rated their experiences of having been bullied in elementary, junior high, and high school; reported the frequency of having been bullied during each term; and completed instruments that included scales measuring present self-esteem, subjective happiness, trait anger, and trait anxiety. Influences of the experience of having been bullied on the students’ present well-being were then evaluated. Mediation effects of self-esteem on well-being were also examined. The students reported a distinctly higher frequency of having been bullied in elementary and junior high school, compared to when they were in high school. The results of a path analysis showed that the experience of being bullied in junior high and high school directly influenced the university students’ well-being. The results also suggested that the experience of being bullied in elementary school had indirect effects on the university students’ well-being, which was mediated by self-esteem. The results of the present study support prior research in showing that bullying has long-term effects on well-being in later years.
Recently, requests for highly accurate and simple screening tests to measure mental health in the field of student counseling have been increasing. Conventionally, the University Personality Inventory (UPI), the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30), and the K10 (the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale) have been used for this purpose. However, it remains unclear whether there is a common cutoff point across these tests, and whether they measure the same constructs. The present study was an attempt to clarify these issues. Participants, university students (N=548 ; 270 men, 278 women), completed the UPI, the GHQ-30, and the K10 in one sitting as part of their orientation as new students. Their responses were analyzed using correlational analysis, factor analysis, and item response theory in order to determine whether the tests consisted of a common measure. The results indicated that the cutoff points of these tests were nearly identical, suggesting that they measure the same construct. The UPI was highly accurate for measuring everyday problems, and the GHQ-30, for measurements close to the cutoff point. The K10 was able to detect illnesses with a minimal number of items. These results suggest that these 3 tests be optimally utilized on the basis of these characteristics.
“My-side bias” refers to the tendency to generate more reasons in favor of one’s own position than the other side’s position. The present study examined effects of goal instructions with strategies and role assignment on reducing my-side bias when writing arguments. In the pilot study, the fourth-grade students who assumed that their readers had an opposing position generated more counterarguments than the control students did. However, they did not generate rebuttals. In the main study, fifth grade elementary school students (N=90) wrote arguments in 3 different conditions: (a) control condition: students were given the goal of generating more counterarguments and rebuttals; (b) strategy condition: student were given those goals and a strategy for accomplishing the goals; and (c) role assignment condition: students were given the same goals and strategy, plus instructions to write like a journalist. Students in the strategy and role assignment conditions generated more rebuttals than the students in the control condition did. These results suggest that the strategy instruction reduced my-side bias when the students were writing arguments. In addition, the students in the role assignment condition referred to more evidence to prove that the position that they supported was superior to the opposing position than the students in the strategy condition did.
The present study compared 2 methods for comparing multiple ideas in pupils’ problem solving. Fifth grade pupils (N=44) were assigned to 1 of 2 conditions involving different methods. All pupils were shown 4 ideas based on the mean, mode, maximum, and minimum with a histogram. The pupils in the Method 1 group first found similarities between the 4 ideas, and then found differences. The pupils in the Method 2 group chose the best from among the 4 ideas, and then explained why they had selected it. Next, all the pupils solved 2 problems. Problem A examined whether they could estimate a number of ways other than the mean when the data contained an outlier; Problem B examined whether they could refer to multiple ideas when comparing data. More pupils in the Method 1 group than the Method 2 group gave appropriate answers on Problem A. On Problem B, the pupils in the Method 1 group referred to more ideas than the pupils in the Method 2 group did. These results suggest that finding similarities and differences between ideas may be an effective comparison method when solving problems about representative values.
In line with the movement for statistical reform in psychology, awareness of the limitations of null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) has increased among educational and psychological researchers. However, the actual discrepancy between the results from null hypothesis significance testing and alternative measures such as effect size has not been thoroughly examined in Japan. The present article reports the results from an exhaustive survey of articles published in the last 4 years in the Japanese Journal of Educational Psychology, and investigates the relation between published p values and effect size measures, using information derived from the summary and test statistics reported in those articles. The tests involved included independent group t-tests, paired t-tests, one-way ANOVA, and two-way factorial ANOVA. The results showed that, although moderate correlations were observed between p values and effect size measures, several of the studies examined were underpowered because the sample size was insufficient. On the other hand, several other studies reported very small effect sizes that were still significant in the context of null hypothesis significance testing. Future directions are discussed, including the use of meta-analyses and a Bayesian approach.
The purpose of the present study was to examine the development of the perspective of undergraduate students (N=14 ; all females) who volunteered at an elementary school. The students were in the beginning stage of training as human service professionals, including some who were planning to become clinical psychologists. The volunteers wrote notes about their experiences on an electronic bulletin board ; these messages were analyzed with the Grounded Theory Approach and the Trajectory Equifinality Model. The results suggested that development of the students’ perspective on their volunteer activities went through 4 stages: (a) participant, (b) observer, (c) objective, and (d) panoramic. This suggests that the students’ work as volunteers and their record-sharing brought them a variety of perspectives and developed their ability to adapt to complicated situations. These results could be applicable to the training of all types of human service professionals. However, some students discontinued their volunteer activities before they had experienced any change in their perspective. This suggests that both establishing an environment in which students can learn from each other, and giving consideration to individual differences, are important for promoting students’ development in their clinical practice.
The purpose of the present study was to increase the self-formation consciousness of female high school students, using an intervention based on individuals’ character strengths. The participants, high school girls (average age 16.6 years), first completed an inventory of their character strengths; in the next week, they received individualized feedback about their top 5 scores on the character strength inventory, and the intervention group was asked to use one of those strengths in a new and different way each day for 1 week. All participants completed a self-formation consciousness scale before and after the intervention. In the feedback and post-intervention periods, participants in the intervention group also completed an intervention that assessed their feelings about their top 5 strengths. Changes in the 2 groups during the intervention were analyzed using a 2×2 (Condition × Time) mixed ANOVA. The results suggested that the possibility-seeking scores and the effort-to-possibility scores of the students in the intervention group increased significantly from the time of the pre-test to the time of the post-test. In addition, a significant increase from the feedback test to the post-test was found in the intervention group’s scores on their feelings about their character strengths. These findings suggest that the intervention using the students’ top 5 character strengths appeared to be effective in self-formation consciousness.