In the present study, scales to measure cognitive behavioral, and emotional aspects of students’ attitudes toward learning were developed, and the reliability and validity of the scales were confirmed. The participants were middle school and high school students (7th through 12th grades, N=1,361). The results of factor analyses revealed that each of the scales consisted of 3 factors: “affirmation of concern,” “acceptance of cost,” and “valuing performance goals” on the cognitive aspect; “habitual positive behavior,” “dealing with test tasks,” and “avoidance of coping” on the behavioral aspect; and “sense of fulfillment,” “sense of control,” and “anxiety about learning” on the emotional aspect. Differences in attitudes in relation to level in school and grade, and features of the attitude profiles were also examined. The results were as follows: in the middle school students’ scores, a strong negative correlation was found between positive attitudes and avoidance of coping; in the high school students’ scores, strong positive correlations were found between dealing with test tasks and valuing performance goals, and between dealing with test tasks and anxiety about learning. Habitual positive behavior and dealing with test tasks decreased as the students’ progressed higher through school grades, and sense of fulfillment and sense of control were low, and anxiety about learning was high in school transition. The number of students with positive attitudes was smallest in the middle school group, whereas in the high school group, the number of students reporting negative emotions decreased, and of those having interests other than learning increased.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relation of inattention, hyperactivity-impulsivity, and internalizing problems, as mediated by daily school experiences and self-esteem. Junior high school students (N=826) completed a self-report questionnaire concerning their daily experiences with schoolwork and their relationships with friends at school, their self-esteem, and internalizing problems. Their homeroom teachers (N=22) rated each student’s inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity. Analysis of the data revealed that the inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity ratings were positively correlated with negative scores on daily school experiences, and that those experiences were negatively correlated with the students’ self-esteem scores. Higher scores on negative daily school experiences and lower self-esteem scores were related to higher scores on internalizing problems, whereas the total of the ratings of inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity was not directly correlated with the scores on either self-esteem or internalizing problems.
The purposes of the present study were to identify multiple domains of expectations and experiences of campus life, and empirically examine their effects on adjustment to university life. The results of a preliminary survey of 84 university students were used to investigate expectations and experiences of campus life and develop the final items. Participants in the main survey were 316 university freshman. Factor analysis identified 4 domains: free time, friendship, events, and study. Paired t-tests revealed a gap between expectations and experiences in all 4 domains. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis identified interactions between expectations and experiences in the free time and friendship domains. The interactions indicated that expectations were negatively correlated with apathetic tendencies when more experiences were reported. The main results suggest that if freshmen found that they had more free time at the university than they had expected, their tendency to be apathetic increased. The implications of these findings for first-year university education were discussed.
The present study examined a causal model of public school teachers’ use of sick leave due to mental illness through multilevel structural equation modeling, using scores on teachers’ perception of their work environment and stress responses from an attitude survey as within-level data, and government statistics on prefectural sick-leave rates, educational administration, and mental health measures for teachers as between-level data. For both models, that is, models for elementary and for junior high school teachers, within-level models demonstrated that the teachers’ perception of their work environment explained their stress response, according to a traditional occupational stress model. Between-level models showed that the teachers’ attitudes mediated the relation between educational administration and mental health measures on the one hand, and the teachers’ sick leave usage on the other. Common or similar factors in both the elementary and junior high school models included the extent of use of non-regular teachers, the number of teachers or number of boards of education per student, the unionization rate, and the number of schools. The results suggest that even over a wide area such as a prefecture, organizational adjustment of teachers’ environment and other measures could assist in the prevention of stress responses and decrease the use of sick leave due to mental illness.
Although previously published studies have revealed a significant relationship of reading amount, vocabulary, and reading comprehension skills, few studies have been published on this topic in which the participants were Japanese elementary school children, especially first and second graders. In the present study, first to sixth graders (N=992) in Japanese elementary schools completed a survey that included 6 indices of reading amount, including the number of books borrowed from the school’s library and a test of recognition of titles. The results were as follows: (a) overall, all measures of how much the children had read were positively related to their scores on vocabulary and reading comprehension, and (b) no strong positive correlation was found among the measures of reading amount. The present results may serve as a foundation for future development of language education in Japan, and for further methodological examination of measures of reading amount.
Even when rules are taught with case examples, learners sometimes do not pay attention to the information in the rule and instead engage in inductive learning, based solely on the case examples (Kudo, 2013, in Japanese). Kudo (2013) suggested that this phenomenon might be caused by insufficient formation of rule representation after the learners are given the case examples. However, why that results in insufficient formation of rule representation has not been investigated thus far. Therefore, in the present research, 2 experiments were conducted. The participants were university students (Study 1, N=42 ; Study 2, N=87). The students were informed of the rule “metal conducts electricity”, and, at the same time, given information on a case example, “copper conducts electricity”. The results suggested that participants with an insufficient framework of knowledge, i.e., general or individual, formed the representation that copper, which is a metal, conducts electricity. In other words, the participants thought that the concept term of “metal” was a modifier for “copper”. Consequently, they did not form a rule representation, and thus could not apply the rule to subsequent problems. The phenomenon of concepts losing their abstractness and being regarded simply as modifiers of case examples can be described as the concepts becoming customary expressions without any specific meaning (in Japanese, makura kotoba ka).
The purpose of the present study was to examine, from the point of view of junior high school teachers, how the teachers utilized school counselors’ advice when the teachers collaborated with school counselors (SCs). Semi-structured interviews conducted with 16 junior high school teachers were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. The teachers were found to have (a) freed themselves from emotional pressure by asking school counselors to play a role that was difficult for the teachers to play, (b) understood more about their students and the students’ guardians when given information about them by the school counselors, (c) determined their actions with reference to guidance from the school counselors, and (d) refreshed their mental condition after receiving empathic comments from the school counselors. Through one or more of these processes, the teachers were considered to have provided guidance to their students and the students’ guardians more calmly than before having collaborated with the school counselors. Moreover, these processes sometimes seemed to have resulted in the teachers having changed their approach for dealing with problems.
The purposes of the present study were to investigate the factor structure of the perception of relational aggression, that is, children’s knowledge structure about relational aggression, and to examine the relation between the participants’ perception of relational aggression and aggressive behavior. The participants (446 elementary school students) completed a questionnaire that included provisional items about their perception of relational aggression, their experiences with relational aggression, and the Proactive-Reaction Aggression Questionnaire (PRAQ). In addition, 163 of the children completed the questionnaire again at a later time. Factor analysis yielded 4 factors : negative perception of relational aggression, familiarity, justification, and usefulness. The reliability of the Perception of Relational Aggression Scale, examined by measures of internal consistency, was found to be almost acceptable. High test-rest reliability was found in the data of the children who completed the instrument on 2 occasions. The validity of the scales was examined in relation to the association between perception and experience. Finally, multiple regression analysis revealed that the children’s perception of relational aggression was significantly associated with relational aggression, even when reactive-expressive aggression was controlled.
The aims of the present study were to construct a Japanese version of the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 Revised (SATAQ-3R), which was developed by Thompson, van den Berg, Keery, Williams, Shroff, Haselhuhn, & Boroughs (2000), and examine the relation between media use and thin-ideal internalization in Japan. In Study 1, university seniors (total N=1,054 in 4 samples) completed a 29-item questionnaire. Factor analysis revealed 4 factors, which were selected for the Japanese version of the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 Revised. Validity of the instrument was confirmed, and its internal consistency was checked. Study 2, which used the scores on the Japanese instrument of most of the same participants, examined the relation between the frequency of use of media (such as Internet, television, and magazines) and those scores. The results indicated that the females who were influenced by the media had a more internalized thin-ideal than the males did. However, the males had a more internalized athlete-ideal than the females did. These results suggest that media literacy education may be useful in preventing an increase in eating disorders in Japan.
The present study evaluated effects of a psycho-educational program for prevention of depression in junior high school and high school students. The program, which was based on cognitive behavior therapy, consisted of four 50-minute sessions. The main components of the program were psycho-education, understanding the relevance of feelings and thoughts, cognitive restructuring, and prevention of rumination. Participants, junior high and high school students, were divided into experimental groups who received the program, and control groups who did not. When the junior high school students’ pre-treatment scores were compared to their post-treatment scores, the degree of depression of the treatment group was significantly reduced compared to the control group. The post-treatment reduction in depression in the junior high treatment group was maintained at 3- and 6-month follow-ups. In addition, the degree of depression of the high school treatment group students tended to be reduced in comparison to the data from the high school control group. The results from a qualitative analysis indicated that the students in the treatment group gained a sense of efficacy for preventing their own or others’ depression. These results suggest that this program may have some effect for the prevention of depression in young people.