In Japan, mothers’ child-rearing anxiety is a serious concern; mothers’ anxieties appear to arise from family situations in which mothers do not expect to receive sufficient support for child-rearing from their spouses, because their working hours are very long. In contrast, in the Netherlands, equal sharing by men and women of time between paid and unpaid work has been promoted by emphasizing work-life balance in society. The present study examined how work-life balance affects co-parenting of young children in these two countries, by having parents of pre-schoolers complete questionnaires. Completed questionnaires from Japanese parents (92 mothers, 176 fathers) and Dutch parents (85 mothers, 79 fathers) were analyzed. The findings suggested that, in both countries, mothers spent more time taking care of their children than fathers did. However, the difference between mothers and fathers was significantly larger among Japanese parents, compared to Dutch parents. No difference was found between mothers and fathers, or between Japan and the Netherlands, in positive feelings toward childrearing. Moreover, whereas, in Japan, negative feelings toward childrearing were significantly higher among mothers compared to fathers, no such difference was found among Dutch parents.
The purposes of the present study were to develop a Students’ Motivation Toward Formation and Maintenance of a Relationship with Their Teachers Scale based on self-determination theory, and to examine correlates of the students’ motivation toward formation and maintenance of their relations with their teachers. Junior high school students (N=483) completed a questionnaire. The results were as follows: (a) Exploratory factor analysis of the students’ replies on the Students’ Motivation Toward Formation and Maintenance of a Relationship with Their Teachers Scale revealed 4 factors: “intrinsic regulation,” “identified regulation,” “internalized regulation,” and “external regulation.” (b) The students who had high scores on autonomous motivation greatly trusted their teachers. (c) The students who had high scores on controlled motivation had less trust in their teachers. (d) The correlations differed according to the students’ gender. (e) Both the group that had high scores on controlled motivation and the group that had low motivation scores had less trust in their teachers. These results suggest that not only factors on the teachers’ side, but also the students’ individual psychological factors correlate with students’ trust in their teachers.
The present study examined the relation between changes in academic motivation and students’ perception of test value. The participants, 2,730 students from 76 classes at 5 junior high schools, completed a questionnaire 1 week after mid-term exams in June, 2013, and again in September and December, 2013, and in February, 2014. Multilevel analyses were conducted in order to examine intra-individual relationships between academic motivation and the students’ perception of test value; structural equation modeling was done to examine how the students’ perceived test value affected any change in their academic motivation. The results suggested that the students who considered a test to be an effective way to assess their understanding and improve their learning were likely to increase their autonomous motivation (intrinsic and identified regulation). In contrast, the students who felt that they were being controlled by a test tended to have decreased intrinsic regulation and increased controlled motivation (introjected and extrinsic regulation). These findings suggest that modifying students’ perception of test value may maintain or enhance their autonomous motivation.
The present study aimed to develop a scale to measure job-hunting maintenance processes, that is, the processes by which university students maintain their job-hunting activities after having received rejections from companies that they had applied to; in addition, the reliability and validity of the scale was examined. The participants were undergraduate and graduate students who had finished their job-hunting activities. In Study 1 (N=212), the scale was developed, and it was demonstrated that the scale had sufficient internal consistency and validity. In Study 2 (N=72), relations between job-hunting maintenance processes and the time of the students’ job-hunting period were analyzed. The results suggested that the job-seekers’ behavior was different, depending on the time of their job-hunting. The new scale successfully predicted the processes. For example, at the beginning of the students’ job-hunting (the primary process), the job-seekers tended to engage in present-oriented behavior, in order to maintain their job-hunting activity. As they gradually became more experienced with job-hunting (the secondary process), they tended to engage in future-oriented (goal-oriented) behavior, such as setting attainable goals. These results suggest that the new scale may be effective for differentiating between the primary and secondary processes involved in job-hunting maintenance.
Improvement of the quality of early childhood education and care is an issue that has generated attention internationally. Studies with quantitative indicators of the practical skills of preschool teachers are needed in order to better serve our children’s education. The present study examined the relation between preschool teachers’ perception of practical skills, the length of their teaching experience, and their frequency of reflection. Preschool teachers (N=434) completed a questionnaire. Explanatory factor analysis of the questionnaires identified 3 aspects of practical skills: comprehension of living conditions, responsiveness based on understanding the children, and configuration skill of environment. The reliability of these 3 was confirmed. The results of confirmatory factor analysis showed that the model was an acceptable fit. The results of a correlational analysis showed that the relation between preschool teachers’ perception of practical skills and the length of their teaching experience was stronger than that between the length of their teaching experience and reflection. The relation between reflection and their perception of practical skills was the strongest. In addition, the results of a multiple regression analysis for practical skills revealed a large effect of analytical reflection on children. The present results suggest that newer preschool teachers are able to enhance their perception of practical skills through reflection, and that it is particularly important for them to reflect on the children.
The present study reports the development of a scale to measure 2 types of epistemic curiosity : diverse curiosity and specific curiosity. Diverse curiosity is motivation to explore new information widely ; specific curiosity is motivation to explore specific information in order to solve cognitive conflicts. In Study 1, undergraduates (N=816) completed a questionnaire containing a preliminary pool of 50 items ; from an analysis of those data, 12 items were selected for an Epistemic Curiosity Scale. Next, the Epistemic Curiosity Scale was completed by 566 undergraduates. Factor analysis of those data revealed 2 factors, diverse curiosity and specific curiosity, each of which consisted of 6 items. Cronbach’s α was .81 for both sub-scales. In Study 2, the validity of the Epistemic Curiosity Scale was examined using the Big Five scale, the BIS/BAS (Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System) scales, the Need for Closure Scale, the Need for Cognition Scale, and the Attitudes towards Ambiguity Scale. The results of correlational and regression analyses suggested the commonality and contrast of diverse curiosity and specific curiosity, virtually in accordance with theoretical predictions. Implications and prospects for study using the Epistemic Curiosity Scale were discussed.
The purposes of the present study were to develop the Learning Motivation Scale on Subject Instruction for Teachers, and to confirm the reliability and validity of the Scale. In Study 1, teachers (N=202) completed a questionnaire developed on the basis of a preliminary investigation. Exploratory factor analysis revealed that the Learning Motivation Scale on Subject Instruction for Teachers consisted of the following 6 factors in 29 items: “intrinsic motivation,” “sense of duty,” “orientation toward children,” “indifference,” “orientation to approval and comparison,” and “skill orientation.” In Study 2, teachers (n=243) and student teachers (n=362) completed the Scale. When features of their reported experiences were compared, the results suggested that the student teachers scored higher on “orientation to approval and comparison” than the established teachers did. In Study 3, teachers (N=157) completed questionnaires. When the relation between the teachers’ motivation and their work engagement was examined, the results suggested that “intrinsic motivation,” “orientation toward children,” and “orientation to approval and comparison” may have a positive effect on work engagement.
The purposes of the present research were to clarify the structure of relationships between senior and junior members (senpai and kohai) of junior high and high school clubs, and to clarify the extent of differences in the senior-junior relationships based on factors such as the type of club activity, students’ academic year, and gender. The research also aimed to examine the extent to which senior-junior relationships could be predicted on the basis of a description of the clubs’ activities and characteristics of those activities. Junior high (n=344 ; 166 boys, 178 girls) and high school (n=367 ; 140 boys, 227 girls) students nationwide completed questionnaires. The results suggested that the first-year students reported that the senior-junior relationship was the most important one during both their junior high and high school years. The junior high students also showed a trend for the female students taking the senior-junior relationship more seriously than the male students did. These results suggest that the senior-junior relationships is more established in the activities of clubs that engage in a high level of competition, such as in sports competitions and contests, and also in sports clubs. It was possible to predict the policy and personality of the clubs’ activities with a high degree of certainty, based on various aspects of the senior-junior relationships in those clubs.
The present study developed an educational intervention program for enhancing the empathy of vocational college students for the care of people who are elderly, and examined whether the program resulted in enhancement of empathy, self-esteem, social skills, and prosocial behavior by using the quasi-experimental method. The students were divided into an intervention group (n=17 ; 6 males and 11 females; Mage=20.71, SD=6.44) and a control group (n=35 ; 17 males and 18 females; Mage=19.58, SD=4.63). The intervention group participated in 6 sessions aimed at fostering the cognitive and affective components of empathy, while the control group had no sessions. The results of a 2-factor mixed ANOVA showed significant effects of the program on perspective taking, empathic response toward positive affection, and sharing of negative affection. A month after participation, the intervention group had higher scores compared to the control group. However, no significant effects of the intervention were found on sensitivity to others’ affection, social skills, self-esteem, or prosocial behavior. The discussion describes a program for enhancing empathy, based on the results of this study, focusing especially on how aspects of the program may be improved and how the program might be applied with elementary and junior high school students.
The present article reviews published literature on self-control, self-awareness, and social adaptability in relation to metacognition, because there is a pressing need to find effective methods for preventing recidivism by delinquents and other offenders. The review suggested that individuals with poor metacognitive skills were more likely than those with good skills to fail to perceive important information and to make subjective judgments from a narrow viewpoint. Also, those with poor metacognitive skills tended to have high impulsivity, distort information processing related to self, and misread non-verbal messages from others. The present review of published work in this area suggested that poor metacognitive skills could possibly work to increase the likelihood of recidivism. Metacognition is an ability that anyone can cultivate if given training such as mindfulness, and it might be a key factor in making treatment of delinquents and other criminals more effective than at present. Kew Words : crime, delinquency, metacognition, self-control, social adjustment