Agriculture is highly sensitive to climate change. As one of the most important food crops in the world, maize (commonly known as corn) plays a vital role in ensuring food security and national economic development. However, climate change impacts the maize ecosystem. In China, maize is extensively cultivated as one of the most widely grown food crops. Conducting an in-depth study on the impact of climate change on the maize ecosystem is of great significance to ensure a stable supply and food security of maize. This paper summarizes the effects of climate change on the maize ecosystem in China from various aspects, including (1) planting boundaries and areas, (2) cultivation systems and yields, (3) quality, and (4) agricultural inputs. The purpose of this paper is to provide a reference for evaluating the impact of climate change on maize and promoting the sustainable development of maize cultivation.
Wheat holds immense importance as a crucial source of mineral nutrition in the human diet. However, the nutritional value of modern high-yield wheat varieties has significantly declined when compared to traditional varieties. To address this issue, it is imperative to identify wheat varieties with high mineral content and implement corresponding agronomic measures to promote nutrient accumulation. This study investigates the impact of nitrogen fertilizer and genetic variation on the grain mineral content of wheat in the semi-arid conditions and alkaline soil of the Mediterranean region. A total of 12 winter wheat varieties from diverse origins were carefully selected and tested over two consecutive years. Three topdressing levels were applied: optimal nitrogen application rate, a 50% reduction, and a 30% increase. The findings demonstrate that the variety of wheat is the most influential factor determining the mineral content in the grain, followed by the specific climatic conditions of each year. Notably, the study reveals significant variations in the calcium, iron, magnesium, manganese, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, and zinc contents among the different wheat varieties, which directly impact the overall yield.