It is uncertain whether exercise-induced zero toe brachial index sign (e-ZETS) is beneficial to prevent advanced perfusion disturbance in maintenance hemodialysis (HD) patients. In HD patients, we compared the clinical findings and prognoses among 22 toes in a resting zero toe brachial index sign (r-ZETS) group, 22 toes in an e-ZETS group, and 63 toes in a non-e-ZETS group. The hemodynamics of the lower extremities in the e-ZETS group is intermediate between the r-ZETS and non-e-ZETS groups. As the result of a 36-month follow-up observation, the r-ZETS avoidance rate was significantly lower in the e-ZETS group (63.6%; P <0.001) than the non-e-ZETS group (98.4%), showing that it was difficult to avoid advanced perfusion disturbance. The e-ZETS in HD patients may appear before r-ZETS, being beneficial as a predictor for advanced perfusion disturbance. (This is a translation of J Jpn Coll Angiol 2015; 55: 125–129.)
We performed a comparative study of surgical outcomes and venous functions between endovenous laser ablation with a 980-nm diode laser (EV group) and thigh stripping (ST group). There were no severe complications and initial success rates were 100% in both groups. In the EV group, preoperative symptoms improved in 94.3% of cases, the venous occlusion rate was 98%, and endovenous heat induced thrombosis had occurred in 11.9% (Class 3: 0.7%) at 12 months after the operation. Although comparative study of postoperative venous function by air plethysmography showed significant improvement in both groups, there was less recovery of postoperative venous function in the EV than in the ST group. (This article is a translation of J Jpn Coll Angiol 2015; 55: 13–20.)
Selection from Japanese Journal of Vascular Surgery 2015
Objectives: We report the pathophysiology and treatment results of type A acute aortic dissection from our 20-year experience. Methods: We studied 673 patients with type A acute aortic dissection who underwent initial treatment from 1994 through July 2014. We divided these patients into two groups. The former group comprised 448 patients from 1994 through 2008, and the latter group comprised 225 patients from 2009 onward, when the current strategy of initial treatment and surgical technique including the early organ reperfusion therapies were established.
Results: Women were significantly often presented than men in patients over 60 years of age. Thrombosed-type dissection accounted for more than half in patients over 70 years, and significantly often complicated pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade than patent type. Malperfusion occurred in 26% of patients. Central repair operations were performed in 579 patients. In-hospital mortality for all patients was 15%, and for the patients who underwent central repair operations was 10%. Former period of operation, malperfusion, and preoperative cardiopulmonary arrest were significant risk factor of in-hospital death. Preoperative left main trunk (LMT) stents were placed in eight patients and superior mesenteric artery (SMA) intervention was performed in five, they were effective to improve the outcome. From 2009 onward, in-hospital mortality was 5.0% and there was no significant risk factor.
Conclusion: Surgical results of type A acute aortic dissection were dramatically improved in the past 20 years. Early reperfusion strategy for the patients with malperfusion improved the outcomes. (This article is a translation of Jpn J Vasc Surg 2015; 24: 127–134.)
Objectives: Unexpected systemic inflammatory response with high fever and increase in C-reactive protein (CRP) occurred frequently after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR). This excessive inflammatory response affects the postoperative course. We evaluated the effects of steroid on the postoperative inflammatory response after EVAR.
Methods: Steroid therapy, intravenous infusion of methylprednisolone 1000 mg just after the anesthesia induction, was started since December 2012. After induction of the steroid therapy, 25 patients underwent EVAR with steroid therapy (Group S). These patients were compared with the 65 patients who underwent EVAR without steroid therapy (Group C) in white blood cell count (WBC), CRP and maximum body temperature (BT) on postoperative day 1–5.
Results: There was no significant difference in age, female gender, operation time, maximum aneurysm diameter between the two groups. There was no postoperative infective complication in the both groups. WBC did not differ between the two groups; however, CRP was significantly suppressed in Group S than in Group C on POD 1, 3 and 5. Also BT was significantly lower in Group S than Group C on POD 1, 2 and 3.
Conclusions: Steroid pretreatment before implantation of the stent graft reduces the early postoperative inflammatory response after EVAR, without increasing postoperative infection. (This is a translation of Jpn J Vasc Surg 2015; 24: 861–865.)
Objectives: The optimal surgical management for secondary aorto-enteric fistula (sAEF) is controversial. Here, we report the long-term outcomes of a surgical treatment with in situ graft reconstruction for sAEF that was performed at our hospital.
Methods: Between 2009 and 2012, 10 consecutive patients (8 males, 2 females, mean age 75.9 years) with sAEF were surgically treated with in situ graft reconstruction. Perioperative and long-term outcomes were reviewed retrospectively by medical records.
Results: Clinical manifestations, including gastrointestinal bleeding, shock, sepsis, and back and abdominal pain, were observed during the treatment of the patients. In all the cases, the fistula was found between the duodenum or small intestine and the graft anastomosis, the graft itself, or pseudoaneurysm. Total graft excision and in situ graft reconstruction with omental coverage and digestive tract reconstruction was performed for all cases. There were two operative deaths because of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and sepsis. The other patients showed no sAEF related complications, such as graft infection, and were alive during the 54-month mean follow-up period (33–76 months).
Conclusion: According to our study, the long-term outcomes of surgical treatment with in situ graft reconstruction for sAEF were considered satisfactory. (This article is a translation of Jpn J Vasc Surg 2016; 25: 1–6.)
Purpose: This study aimed at clarifying the changes in treatments for primary varicose veins in Japan.
Methods: A questionnaire was mailed to the members of the Japanese Society of Phlebology. The contents of the survey covered the treatment and treatment strategy of varicose vein cases in 2013. The results were examined and compared with the results of previous surveys conducted by the aforesaid society in 1998, 2004 and 2009.
Results: Of 36078 patients, 43958 limbs were reported from 201 institutions. Saphenous type was the most common type of varicose veins that developed in patients aged 70–79 years. The C4–6 cases according to the Clinical-Etiology-Anatomy-Pathophysiology (CEAP) classification occurred significantly more in males than in females (p <0.01). For the treatments of saphenous type and of segment type (dilatation of peripheral branch), endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) was performed most frequently (51%), while the frequency of stripping and of high ligation decreased. EVLA was performed with tumescent local anesthesia, which required one day of hospitalization.
Conclusion: In our study, the number of patients with varicose veins increased especially in the elderly. Surgical treatments were selected for a number of patients, and EVLA was the most commonly adopted method of treatment in Japan. (This article is a translation of Jpn J Phlebol 2016: 27; 249-57.)
We evaluated thrombus extension in the proximal stump of the saphenous vein at 6 days, 4 weeks, and 16 weeks after saphenous vein surgery performed between July 2013 and March 2014 (18 patients, 29 limbs, and 31 stumps) using duplex ultrasonography. All thrombotic events were classified as endovenous heat-induced thrombosis (EHIT). Thrombus was observed in 27 stumps (87.1%), with only four (12.9%) stumps remaining without thrombus on postoperative day 6. Thrombus as EHIT class 2 was observed in one stump and as EHIT class 3 in another; in the remaining 25 stumps, it was observed as EHIT class 1 postoperatively. No further extension of thrombus was found at 4 and 16 weeks after surgery. The rate of thrombus formation in the proximal stump of the saphenous vein after conventional surgery is comparatively higher than that after thermoablation techniques. Further studies are required to determine adequate evaluation methods and appropriate therapies for stump thrombosis after varicose vein surgery. (This article is a translation of J Jpn Coll
Angiol 2015; 55: 105–110).
Objective: To investigate the usefulness of D-dimer as a screening method as well as to explore potent predictors of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in hospitalized Japanese patients with acute medical diseases/episodes.
Methods and Subjects: This study was a multi-center, prospective, observational study. The inclusion criteria were hospitalized patients at high risk of developing venous thromboembolism with; (1) congestive heart failure, acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, infectious diseases, or inflammatory diseases, (2) bed rest ≥4 days, and (3) ≥60 years old. D-dimer was measured on the same day as ultrasonography. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate predictors associated with the presence of DVT.
Results: Sixty-nine patients were enrolled. The prevalence of DVT was 33.3% (23/69; 95% C.I., 19.4% to 47.3%). D-dimer was measured in 42 patients and the sensitivity and negative predictive value reached 100%, while the specificity (13.3%) and positive predictive value (31.6%) were low (cut-off value: 0.9 or 1.0 µg/mL). Statistically significant predictor was not assigned.
Conclusion: As the sensitivity and negative predictive value of D-dimer reached 100%, D-dimer have a role in excluding patients who might otherwise undergo diagnostic imaging for DVT in hospitalized Japanese patients with acute medical diseases/episodes.
Purpose: To clarify the risk factors for venous stasis-related skin lesions in the legs in patients without major abnormalities on duplex ultrasonography (DUS).
Methods: Fifty patients (nine males and 41 females, age 27–93 years) with symptoms of C4 or greater according to the Clinical, Etiological, Anatomical, Pathological (CEAP) classification, but having no abnormalities on DUS were reviewed for known risk factors for chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) such as older age (>70 years), obesity (body mass index [BMI] >30 kg/m2), short walking distance (<200 m/day), reduced ankle range of motion (<20°), and occupation requiring prolonged standing (>8h per day).
Results: The risk factor was different between male and female patients; although all patients had at least one of the above risk factors, the most commonly found risk factor in male patients was occupation requiring prolonged standing (63%), while advanced age (78%) and limited walking distance (83%) were risk factors in female patients.
Conclusions: Although male and female patients had different risk factors, insufficient walking seemed to be closely related to the development of venous stasis-related skin lesions.
We investigated the clinical picture of non-traumatic acute aortic dissection (AAD) occurring behind the wheel. Between 1990 and 2014, AAD had occurred in 11 patients while driving (nine men, mean age; 58.3 years, seven commercial drivers). The symptoms included chest and/or back pain (n = 9) and syncope (n = 2). One patient with syncope caused a traffic accident. Ten patients had type A dissection (DeBakey type I) and 1 type B dissection. In-hospital mortality was 9.9% (1/11). Our data showed if affected drivers are transported to a hospital in a timely fashion, a good surgical outcome can be expected.
In the modern endovascular era, abdominal aortic aneurysm repair is still not free of complications with re-interventions following endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) being more common than with open surgical repair. A variety of endovascular, open surgical and combined techniques were described according to the anatomical considerations and general health of the patient to achieve the best possible result after these complications. In cases of type Ib endoleak following aorto-uni-lateral EVAR for an abdominal aortic aneurysm, the use of the internal branched device (IBD) constitutes a safe and effective technique.
Aneurysm in the pancreatic arcade artery is an uncommon event, and is usually associated with the condition of median arcuate ligament syndrome. The stenosis at the base of the celiac axis has been presumed to be attributable to a relative increase in flow and pressure within the pancreatic arcade, resulting in subsequent development of the aneurysm. We, herein, present a rare case with rapid development of a pancreatic arcade artery aneurysm immediately after the replacement of a thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm.
We report the rare case of a 54-year-old man with uncontrolled renovascular hypertension, who was found to have an abdominal aortic aneurysm with congenital solitary pelvic kidney and superior mesenteric artery stenosis. A single renal artery branched from aneurysmal aortic bifurcation, and both the renal artery and the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) had severe stenosis at their origins. The aneurysm was repaired with a bifurcated Dacron graft, to which the renal artery was anastomosed. SMA bypass was created between the graft’s left limb and the SMA using another Dacron graft. The operation was successful, with improvement in renal functions and control of hypertension.
We herein report a successful repair of an internal iliac artery aneurysm in a renal transplant patient. At renal transplantation, the main renal artery and accessory renal artery had been anastomosed to the right internal iliac artery and right external iliac artery, respectively. The patient underwent resection and graft replacement of the iliac artery aneurysm with reattachment of the main renal artery to the right external iliac artery through a midline laparotomy with repeated topical cold perfusion for renal protection. The postoperative course was uneventful, and no evidence of renal function impairment was present at discharge.
Right aortic arch with aberrant left subclavian artery and Kommerell diverticulum are rare anomalies. A 42-year-old man was referred with sudden-onset chest pain. Enhanced computed tomography (CT) showed a right aortic arch with early thrombosed acute type A aortic dissection and an aberrant left subclavian artery arising from a Kommerell diverticulum. Medical therapy was instituted; however, follow-up CT revealed an ulcer-like projection. The patient was managed with a two-stage hybrid procedure comprising total arch replacement and endovascular repair and experienced no postoperative complications. Two-stage hybrid repair is a safe and effective surgical option for rare complex aortic anomalies.
Aberrant right subclavian artery embolization is problematic in debranching thoracic endovascular aortic repair, because concomitant bypass grafting to the right upper arm may hinder complete embolization. We report a case of a thoracic aortic aneurysm with aberrant right subclavian artery successfully treated with debranching thoracic endovascular aortic repair and bypass grafting. Although endoleakage was found from aberrant right subclavian artery after single use of Amplatzer vascular plug, additional deployment of Amplatzer vascular plug II completely eliminated residual endoleakage. This simple technique is useful for the aberrant right subclavian artery embolization in debranching thoracic endovascular aortic repair.
A woman in her 80s with an infrarenal aortic aneurysm was scheduled for endovascular aortic repair (EVAR). The aneurysm had a severely angulated neck (SAN), and the Zenith Flex device was selected. Completion angiography showed migration of the main body resulting in right renal artery stenosis. A Palmaz genesis was placed across the renal orifice. The patient had no renal dysfunction and was discharged 7 days after EVAR. If Zenith Flex devices are used for a SAN, it is necessary to consider not only the position of the renal artery but also the appropriate position of the stent-graft.
A thoracic aortic pseudoaneurysm is a life-threatening complication following thoracic aortic surgery. We describe a surgical strategy for this pseudoaneurysm with a high risk for rupture during median sternotomy. The pseudoaneurysm was distended and widely adherent to the posterior sternum. Elective cardiopulmonary bypass and moderate hypothermia were established, and sternotomy was performed without left ventricle distention or brain ischemia. Total arch replacement was successful and the patient was discharged on post operative day (POD) 18. A key surgical strategy was to avoid ventricular fibrillation before sternotomy. Appropriate sternotomy timing and perfusion strategy are crucial for successful treatment.
A 79-year-old man underwent endovascular repair for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), and both internal iliac arteries (IIAs) were preserved. Postoperatively, loss of appetite developed. On the fifth day, computerized tomography (CT) showed inferior mesenteric artery thrombus formation, necrosis of the descending colon and rectum, and generalized peritonitis. The endovascular devices had not migrated. A colonic resection was performed. Histological analysis confirmed intestinal necrosis associated with mesenteric thrombus. The colon can become necrotic even if both IIAs are patent. Ischemic changes in the colon should be detected if it occurs and subsequent laparotomy should be done if it is necessary.
A 43-year-old woman with abdominal and back pain during childbirth consulted us 1 day postdelivery. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) revealed partially thrombosed type A aortic dissection with intimal tear in the proximal descending thoracic aorta. Conservative antihypertensive treatment was started. However, her abdominal pain progressively deteriorated. Repeat CT revealed narrowing of the descending aorta true lumen and progressive bowel malperfusion. Total arch replacement was urgently performed using the frozen elephant trunk technique. Postoperative CT showed true lumen widening and symptom disappearance. Follow-up CT demonstrated excellent aortic remodeling.
A 44-year-old man was transported to our hospital with chief complaints of back pain and paralysis of the leg. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) imaging revealed an acute Stanford B aortic dissection (AD), which was complicated by acute arterial occlusion of the left external iliac artery. The patient was treated by femorofemoral crossover bypass. Thereafter, abdominal pain was noted, and the patient was diagnosed with intestinal ischemia due to occlusion of the celiac artery and superior mesenteric artery (SMA). A stent was emergently placed into SMA. Subsequently, the patient demonstrated good postoperative progress and was discharged on hospital day 27.
Perigraft seroma is a rare complication occurs after placement of any vascular graft. It is defined as the collection of a sterile, clear and acellular liquid around prosthesis. It can appear years after surgery as a soft, palpable and painless mass. We present a perigraft seroma occurred in a 75-years-patient underwent Dacron right axillo-bifemoral bypass for Leriche’s syndrome. Ultrasound and computed tomography scan revealed involvement of graft left branch and bifurcation. Although several treatment options have been proposed, removal and replacement of prosthetic affected tract with another of a different material has been proved the choice with best result.
We herein report a case of a rare complication of spinal cord ischemia (SCI) following endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). Computed tomography showed stenosis and calcification of bilateral iliac arteries and a saccular aneurysm of the terminal aorta. Paraplegia occurred soon after balloon angioplasty of iliac arteries and EVAR. Cerebrospinal fluid drainage was not performed because the patient was on dual antiplatelet drugs. The patient was treated with intravenous methylpredonisolone and naloxone; however, this did not improve his paraplegia. SCI after EVAR is extremely rare and unpredictable complication, however, physicians should be aware of SCI after EVAR in patients with atherosclerosis.