Background and Objectives: In patients with peripheral arterial diseases (PADs) due to infra-popliteal (below the knee; BTK) lesions, we often encounter situations requiring the immediate selection of either of two revascularization methods, namely bypass surgery or endovascular therapy (EVT). However, the question of whether endovascular or surgical revascularization should be performed initially for critical limb ischemia (CLI) patients with BTK lesions has not been clarified. To assess the efficacy and durability of EVT or bypass as a first approach, we evaluated the short- and mid-term outcomes of the first revascularizations achieved using EVT (EVT First Group; EVT-first) compared with bypass (Bypass First Group; Bypass-first). To verify the validity of each initial revascularization, we explored factors influencing overall survival (OS) rates using multivariate analyses.Methods: A total of 169 consecutive BTK revascularization procedures (150 patients) for CLI conducted at our facility between November 2006 and July 2012 were analyzed. Patients undergoing revascularization were divided into two groups (EVT-first or Bypass-first), with 102 patients undergoing endovascular therapy first (EVT-first) and 51 undergoing bypass surgery first (Bypass-first). No statistically significant differences were noted between the two groups with respect to preoperative background including age, gender, and cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, coronary arterial disease (CAD), chronic heart failure (CHF), cerebrovascular disease, and hemodialysis). Technical success was defined as a single straight-line flow to the ankle after completion angiography of the first revascularization method. Hemodynamic success was defined as a postoperative skin perfusion pressure of the foot exceeding 40 mmHg.Results: The average age of patients was 76.0 years (range, 46–98 years; 65 men and 37 women) and 72.3 years (range, 43–93 years; 35 men and 13 women) in the EVT-first and Bypass-first groups, respectively. Patient follow-up ranged from 1 to 50 months (mean, 15 months). Respective technical and hemodynamic success rates were 96.2% and 66.7% for EVT-first and 100% and 94% for Bypass-first, respectively. Treatment was required an average of 1.5 times for EVT-first and 1.2 times for Bypass-first. Respective rates for other factors examined in the EVT-first and the Bypass-first groups were: major amputation rates 30 days post-procedure, 5.9%, and 3.9%; mortality rates 30 days post-procedure, 3.9%, and 0%; one-year AFS rates, 71.7%, and 79.5%; OS rates, 73.5% and 83.9%; and limb salvage rates, 88.8%, and 91.0%. Multivariate-analysis of all subjects in the two groups revealed that the OS rates were affected by four risk factors as follows: (1) age greater than 80 years, (2) CAD, (3) CHF, and (4) a non-ambulatory limb.Conclusion: For patients with CLI due to BTK lesions and whose saphenous veins are in poor condition or are in poor general condition having two or more of the four severe risk factors, the EVT-First procedure is effective and provides durable results. Overall survival in patients with CLI due to BTK lesions is worse when patients have more than two severe risk factors, which is non-ambulatory limb, aged less than 81 years, with CAD or with CHF. (This article is a translation of Jpn J Vasc Surg 2014; 23: 766–773.)
Objective: The aim of this study is to compare the clinical efficacy and safety of two laser wavelengths and fiber types in endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) of saphenous varicose veins of the lower limb. Design: Multi-center prospective randomized non-blind clinical trial.Patients and Methods: From January 2007 to December 2011, 113 patients (113 limbs) with primary varicose veins were randomized into two groups. They were treated with radial 2ring fiber and 1470 nm laser in Group I (57 limbs) and bare-tip fiber and 980 nm laser in Group E (56 limbs) in order to ablate the saphenous vein. Vein occlusion rates at 12 weeks and pain in treated region were recorded as primary endpoint. Visual analogue scale (VAS) for assessment of pain, rates of bruising, complications and equipment failure were recorded as secondary endpoint of safety.Results: Occlusion rates at 12 weeks were 100% in both groups. Rates of pain (0% vs. 25.0%) and bruising (7.0% vs. 57.1%) were significantly lower in Group I (p <0.0001). VAS of pain was significantly lower on postoperative day 1, day 5 and 2nd week in Group I.Conclusion: Treatment of saphenous varicose veins by EVLA using a 1470 nm laser and a radial 2ring fiber resulted in comparable occlusion rates at 12 weeks and less postoperative pain and bruising than EVLA with a 980 nm laser and a bare-tip fiber. (This article is a translation of Jpn J Vasc Surg 2014; 23: 964–971.)
Most patients with severe motor and intellectual disabilities (SMID) have restricted mobility capability and have been bedridden for long periods because of paralysis of the extremities caused by abnormal muscular tonicity due to cerebral palsy and developmental disabilities. Such patients are associated with a high risk of complications like deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Here, we report twelve patients (42.9%) with DVT among 28 patients with SMID during prolonged bed rest. However, we did not detect thrombosis in the soleal veins, finding it mostly in the femoral and common femoral veins. We applied anticoagulant therapy (warfarin), and carefully followed up the cases with DVT, regulating the warfarin dosage at prothrombin time-international normalized ratio (PT-INR) values around two to prevent recurrence of chronic thrombosis. Regarding laboratory data for the coagulation system, there were no cases above 5 µg/ml for the D-dimer and there were significant differences between the DVT and non-DVT groups in the D-dimer levels. The plasma levels of D-dimer in patients with DVT diminished to less than 1.0 µg/ml after warfarin treatment. Concerning sudden death (4.2%) in patients with SMID, we have to be very careful of the possibility of pulmonary thromboembolism due to DVT. Therefore, we should consider the particularity of the underdeveloped vascular system from underlying diseases for the evaluation of DVT. A detailed study of DVT as a vascular complication is very important for the smooth medical care of SMID, and serial assessment of compression Doppler ultrasonography of the lower extremities, as a noninvasive examination and measurement of D-dimer, is very helpful. (This article is a translation of Jpn J Phlebol 2014; 25: 34–42.)
Objective: Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) induces matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), which is regarded as a biomarker of plaque rupture or vulnerability. The aim of this study is to investigate those interactions in human coronary arteries at the onset of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).Methods: Thirty-two patients with STEMI who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were enrolled in this study. Plasma levels of PDGF-BB and MMP-9 were measured from infarct-related artery (IRA) and from femoral artery (FA) during PCI.Results: Plasma levels of PDGF-BB and MMP-9 in the IRA were significantly higher than those in the FA (PDGF-BB: median 3130 pg/ml, IQR (interquartile range): 2020 to 4375 pg/ml vs. median 2605 pg/ml, IQR: 1305 to 3290 pg/ml, p <0.01, MMP-9: median 49 ng/ml, IQR: 35 to 100 ng/ml vs. median 42 ng/ml, IQR: 27 to 78 ng/ml, p = 0.04, IRA and FA, respectively).Conclusions: This in vivo study demonstrated that PDGF-BB with MMP-9 seems to play a role in coronary plaque instability in acute phase of STEMI.
Purpose: Arch aneurysm combined with insufficient Zone 1 length remains challenging. While a chimney stentgraft with supra-aortic bypass is a recognized solution for arch aneurysm, no definite strategy has been established yet. The aim of this study was to investigate efficacy of chimney stentgraft for patients with zone 1 of insufficient length.Methods: Between 2011 and 2013, 10 consecutive patients with aortic arch aneurysm who were treated with a chimney stentgraft were retrospectively reviewed. The minimum length of zone 1 and length of landing zone inside zone 0 were measured on pre-/post-operative 3D-CT.Results: Neither in-hospital mortality nor postoperative stroke was encountered. The minimum median length of zone 1 (zone 2 for bovine aortic arch of two patients) on preoperative 3D-CT was 10.1 mm [range: 3.9–15.3]. On postoperative 3D-CT, the median proximal landing length on a major curvature proximal to brachio-cephalic artery was 37.5 [range: 20.9–63.9] mm. Type Ia endoleak was observed in two patients with a landing length along the major curvature of less than 30 mm.Conclusion: For patients with insufficient length of zone 1, aneurysm exclusion could be achieved with a chimney stentgraft ensuring sufficient length (>30 mm) of the landing zone inside the ascending aorta along major curvature.
Objectives: To determine the efficacy and the optimal timing of thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) for closing the primary entry in uncomplicated patients with chronic type B aortic dissection and a patent false lumen (FL).Methods: Thirteen patients underwent TEVAR for aortic dissection between 2008 and 2012. These patients had chronic dissection with a patent FL and expansion of the aorta. Early TEVAR was performed for five patients within 1–7 months from the index dissection (TEVAR-EC group) and delayed TEVAR was performed for eight patients within 1–16 years (TEVAR-DC group). Changes in the diameters and volumes of the true lumen (TL) and FL and the aortic remodeling were assessed by multidetector computed tomography for 3 years after TEVAR.Results: The reduction rate of FL in the thoracic aorta was notably higher in the TEVAR-EC group than in the TEVAR-DC group regardless of the presence or absence of distal retrograde flow. There was a significant TL expansion despite different timings of TEVAR.Conclusions: Early TEVAR resulted in good prognosis and preferable aortic remodeling in uncomplicated patients with chronic type B aortic dissection and a patent FL, and we recommend early TEVAR within seven months after the index dissection.
We report a case of total occlusion of a Zenith bifurcated stent graft 16 months after implantation. A 72-year-old man was admitted to our hospital complaining of bilateral lower extremity numbness, followed by severe rest pain 4 h after sudden onset of symptoms. Computed tomography showed total occlusion of the endograft at the mid-portion of the main body. He underwent left axillobifemoral bypass using a reinforced polytetrafluoroethylene T-shaped graft, leading to resolution of symptoms 7 h after onset. Axillobifemoral bypass successfully relieved acute lower extremity ischemia caused by total occlusion of the abdominal aortic endograft.
We present a rare case of an infected abdominal aortic aneurysm due to Helicobacter cinaedi that was detected by blood culture. A 79-year-old man with lumbago and left lower quadrant pain was admitted for the treatment of an infected abdominal aortic aneurysm. H. cinaedi was isolated from a blood culture, which was obtained on admission. The aneurysm was successfully treated with antibiotic therapy, aneurysmectomy, debridement, replacement of a bifurcated Dacron prosthesis, and omental wrapping. Our present case suggests that H. cinaedi should be considered as the causative agent of an infected aortic aneurysm.
Acute aortic occlusion is a catastrophic event requiring early recognition and intervention. The patient was diagnosed type B aortic dissection. He became anuric on the sixth day of illness and the femoral artery pulse was not palpable. Therefore the patient was conveyed to our hospital. During transfer, his blood pressure was suddenly elevated and later he was in cardiopulmonary arrest. After cardiopulmonary resuscitation, the heart resumed beating in several minutes. Acute dynamic obstruction was regarded as a cause of the cardiac arrest. A thoracic endovascular aortic repair was performed urgently. His postoperative period was uneventful and the patient was discharged without problems.
Horseshoe kidney is a common urology anomaly, while its association with infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm represents a very rare condition. Surgical approach remains controversial however, we believe that the left retroperitoneal approach should be preferred in order to avoid isthmus resection with any subsequent renal infarction, urinary tract damage and to facilitate renal arteries reimplantation, when required.We present a case of voluminous infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm associated with horseshoe kidney, successfully treated through a left retroperitoneal approach on the retro-renal space.
Behçet’s disease (BD) is a rare chronic systemic vasculitis of unknown etiology that presents in young adults. We report a very rare case of a left subclavian artery pseudoaneurysm identified after a left clavicle fracture in a 70-year-old man with a 40-year history of intestinal BD. The patient received fixation by banding to treat a fracture after falling from a bed about 5 months previously, and he was referred to our hospital due to the finding of a left subclavian pulsatile mass. As enhanced computed tomography showed a left subclavian artery pseudoaneurysm, it was repaired using an endovascular stent graft.
Gastroduodenal artery (GDA) aneurysm is a rare but potentially fatal vascular disease, with chronic pancreatitis being reported as the commonest aetiological factor. Its main complication is rupture, which is not uncommon and carries high risk of mortality. Clinical suspicion and advanced imaging tools should be employed in a timely fashion to make a diagnosis before this ominous event. We report a case of successfully treated GDA aneurysm who presented with minor bleeding episodes before suffering a major bleed and briefly discuss this pathology in light of the existing literature.
I report a hemorrhagic complication due to disseminated intravascular coagulation after thoracic endovascular aortic repair for a dissecting aortic aneurysm. A 74-year-old man underwent thoracic endovascular aortic repair and carotid- carotid artery bypass to close the primary entry site of the dissecting aortic aneurysm. Postoperatively, he developed a gradually expanding cervical hematoma. Laboratory data showed disseminated intravascular coagulation. He could not extubated until postoperative day 6 because of the risk of airway obstruction. He was treated with transfusion to replenish the coagulation factor. Disseminated intravascular coagulation may occur secondary to thrombus formation in the false lumen after thoracic endovascular aortic repair.
We present a case of a 70-year-old male who underwent surgical repair of an aortic arch aneurysm. Preoperative assessment of high-risk aortic plaque was performed using magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition with gradient-echo (MPRAGE) imaging. This preoperative image was compared with a histological analysis of plaque specimens from the aortic arch and neck vessels. A high signal intensity on MPRAGE images coincided with intraplaque hemorrhage. MPRAGE, which could detect a fragile plaque in the aorta, could be a powerful modality to prevent intraoperative stroke during cardiovascular surgery.
We report a case of hybrid thoracic endovascular aortic repair for intercostal patch aneurysm after thoracoabdominal aortic replacement. Eighteen years ago, a 63-year-old woman with Marfan syndrome had undergone thoracoabdominal aortic replacement with reimplantation of the intercostal artery in an island fashion. Follow-up computed tomography (CT) revealed a remaining intercostal patch aneurysm of diameter 60 mm 17 years after the last operation. Hybrid thoracic endovascular aortic repair for exclusion of this intercostal patch aneurysm was successfully performed, with visceral artery bypasses. Postoperative CT showed no anastomotic stenosis or endoleak.
The Inter-Society Consensus for the Management of Peripheral Arterial Disease (TASC) guidelines were last updated in 2007 (TASC II) and represented the collaboration of international vascular specialties involved in the management of patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Since the publication of TASC II, there have been innovations in endovascular revascularization strategies for patients with PAD. The intent of this publication is to provide a complete anatomic lower limb TASC lesion classification, including the infrapopliteal segment, and an updated literature review of new endovascular techniques and practice patterns employed by vascular specialists today.