Objective: Endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) are safe and effective treatments for varicose veins caused by saphenous reflux. Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and endovenous heat-induced thrombosis (EHIT) are known complications of these procedures. The purpose of this article is to investigate the incidence of postoperative DVT and EHIT in patients undergoing EVLA and RFA.
Methods: The patients were assessed by clinical examination and venous duplex ultrasonography before operation and at 24–72 hours, 1 month, and 1 year follow-up after operation. Endovenous ablation (EVA) had been treated for 1026 limbs (835 patients) using an RFA; 1174 limbs (954 patients) using a 1470-nm wavelength diode laser with radial two-ring fiber (1470R); and 6118 limbs (5513 patients) using a 980-nm wavelength diode laser with bare-tip fiber (980B).
Results: DVT was detected in 3 legs (0.3%) of RFA, 5 legs (0.4%) of 1470R, and 27 legs (0.4%) of 980B. One patient in three symptomatic DVT treated with 980B developed asymptomatic pulmonary embolus. In all, 31 of the 35 DVTs were confined to the calf veins. The incidence of EHIT classes 2 and 3 was 2.7% following RFA procedure, 6.7% after 1470R, and 7.5% after 980B.
Conclusion: The incidence of EHIT following EVA was low, especially the RFA procedure. EHIT resolves within 2–4 weeks in most patients. DVT rates after EVA were compared with those published for saphenous vein stripping. (This is a translation of J Jpn Coll Angiol 2015; 55: 153–161.)
Selection from the Japanese Journal of Phlebology 2015
Objective: The purpose of this study was to observe the direct effects of oral bacteria, such as Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) and Treponema denticola (Td), on the peripheral vasculature.
Materials and Methods: Beagles were directly injected (at various doses) with Pg or Td. Each leg vein was exposed, ligated at proximal and distal sites, and then injected with bacteria diluted with sterile saline. The collected vascular tissue was examined microscopically, and samples of the vascular tissue and blood were cultured and then subjected to the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in order to detect the bacterial deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).
Results: No genes of the injected bacteria were detected in the Td-inoculated blood or vascular tissue samples collected 2 weeks after the injection. The Pg gene was also not detected in the blood samples collected 4 weeks after the injection although it was detected in the vascular tissue using PCR. Microscopic examinations showed that the inflammatory reactions in the perivascular tissue increased in a bacterial dose-dependent manner, as expected.
Conclusion: We observed the direct effects of oral bacteria on vascular tissue. Further studies are needed to investigate the correlations between oral bacteria and systemic diseases. (This article is a translation of Jpn J Phlebol 2015; 26: 41-6.)
Introduction: Radio waves and lasers can be used as heat sources during endovenous thermal ablation (EVTA) for saphenous vein insufficiency. A morphological comparison of veins that had been treated with EVTA was performed between those treated with an endovenous closure system (a radiofrequency [RF] system) and those treated with a Radial 2Ring fiber connected to a 1470-nm laser generator (2R).
Methods: The experiment was conducted in a system that reproduces the physiological conditions found in the saphenous veins during EVTA. The 2R experiment was performed at two different power levels, 60 J/cm (2R-60) and 90 J/cm (2R-90). The heated vessels were morphologically examined in detail, and the detected morphological changes were classified into three groups: low-temperature changes (LTC), mid-temperature changes (MTC), and high-temperature changes (HTC). The thickness of the layers exhibiting each type of change was measured.
Results: In the 2R groups, HTC, MTC, and LTC were observed from the superficial to deep layers. In the 2R-60 group, the layers exhibiting LTC, MTC, and HTC were 17 ± 3.2, 42 ± 10.5, and 190 ± 14.6 µm thick, respectively. In the 2R-90 group, these layers were 14 ± 4.0, 105 ± 64.2, and 363 ± 71.3 µm thick, respectively. In the RF group, only LTC were observed (thickness: 251 ± 72.6 µm).
Conclusions: The RF device was able to heat the target vessels more efficiently than the laser device. (This article is a translation of Jpn J Phlebol 2015; 26: 23–8.)
Objective: Previously, we analyzed human varicose veins (VV) using imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) and detected the abnormal accumulation of lipid molecules in the walls of VV, possibly due to insufficient lipid drainage by the lymphatic vessels. In this study, we created an animal model of lymphatic insufficiency to investigate the effects of insufficient lymph drainage on vein walls.
Methods: In rats, the lymphatic collecting vessels surrounding the femoral vein were ligated on one side (the model tissue), which caused the local retention of lymphatic fluid in the perivascular tissue. The equivalent contralateral tissue was used as a control. A histological study of the femoral vein and the surrounding perivascular tissue was conducted. IMS was used to analyze the distribution of lipid molecules in the perivascular tissue.
Results: Fourteen days after the procedure, the lymphatic vessels in the model tissue were significantly dilated. Furthermore, IMS revealed that the composition of the lipid molecules in the perivascular regions of the model tissue had altered. Compared with the control tissue, the model tissue exhibited marked perivascular accumulation of lysophosphatidylcholine (1-acyl 16:0), phosphatidylcholine (16:0/20:4), and triglycerides (52:2). Interestingly, the walls of the femoral veins running through the model tissue were 3.4-fold thicker than those of the femoral veins running through the control tissue. The number of tumor necrosis factor α-positive adipocytes was increased in the perivascular regions of the model tissue.
Conclusion: The findings of this study indicated that the accumulation of lymphatic fluid due to insufficient lymph drainage changes the structure of vein walls, and such changes might be associated with chronic venous insufficiency. (This is a translation of Jpn J Phlebol 2015; 26: 227–235.)
Objectives: To assess the advantage of selective use of shunt in carotid endarterectomy (CEA) under local anesthesia.
Materials and Methods: A total of 122 consecutive patients fulfilling international guidelines were included. Shunt was used selectively only in cases of bilateral severe carotid artery occlusive disease or in those patients who developed neurological symptoms on clamping of carotid artery. Follow up was done weekly for one month; then every month for 3 months; and then every 3 months for a year.
Results: Shunt was used only in 5% (n = 6) patients. Of these, 2.5% (n = 3) patients were those who developed neurological symptoms on clamping the internal carotid and deployment of shunt resulted in complete resolution of symptoms. 2.5% (n = 3) had severe bilateral carotid stenosis and shunt was deployed. One of these patients developed stroke which was permanent. There was no mortality. The mean procedure time was 170 min in patients in whom shunt was used, when compared with 100 min in patients without shunt (P = 0.003).
Conclusion: Use of shunt in carotid endarterectomy under local anesthesia as selective policy has an advantage in terms of cost effectiveness, operation time and prevention of potential complications.
Objective: To assess whether Hachimi-jio-gan (HJG), a preparation of Kampo medicine (traditional Japanese medicine), improves quality of life (QOL) in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD).
Materials and Methods: Among the patients with PAD being followed in the Department of Cardiovascular Surgery at Tokyo Medical University Hachioji Medical Center, those with intermittent claudication (IC) and in stable condition regarding PAD severity were registered. We registered the patients from April 2014 to March 2015. We administered HJG extract for 6 months to the patients. The primary endpoint was Walking Impairment Questionnaire (WIQ) score, which was approved as an indicator of QOL of the patient with PAD. We assessed WIQ score both before and after administration of the HJG.
Results: We analyzed 14 patients. WIQ items of pain, distance, and speed improved significantly. Furthermore, the median of the total score of WIQ improved significantly from 162.5 points to 308.0 points. All patients showed improvement in the total score and 7 patients out of 14 patients (50%) showed a remarkably effective improvement in score of more than 100 points.
Conclusion: HJG might improve the QOL in patients with IC due to PAD.
Background: Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is the standard treatment modality for the prevention of stroke in patients with carotid stenosis. This study reports our experiences during CEA with routine awake tests under regional anesthesia (RA) combined with light sedation by dexmedetomidine infusion.
Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 23 patients who had undergone CEA between April 2013 and June 2015. All patients underwent the awake test during CEA with cervical plexus block and light sedation by continuous dexmedetomidine infusion.
Results: Mean operation and clamp times were 108.5 ± 20.1 min and 30.1 ± 6.9 min, respectively. Selective shunt placement was performed in three patients (13.0%). There were no cases of perioperative stroke, myocardial infarction, or death. There were no occurrences of residual stenosis, thrombosis, or dissection. One patient had a hypoglossal nerve injury but fully recovered before discharge. Mean (± standard deviation) hospital stay was 7.5 ± 2.6 days. There were no incidences of death, stroke, or restenosis during a mean follow-up period of 9.2 ± 8.8 months.
Conclusions: RA with dexmedetomidine infusion appears to be a safe and feasible option. A lower shunt placement rate and favorable patient outcomes were observed following the awake test during CEA.
Objective: Toe-brachial index (TBI) is usually measured in the great toe (TBI-1). However, this is not always possible. To determine the usefulness of TBI measurement in the second toe (TBI-2), we examined the relation between systolic pressure in the second toe (toe pressure [TP-2]) and that in the great toe (TP-1) and evaluated the association between TBI and ankle-brachial index (ABI).
Materials and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed patients who underwent a series of measurements of TBI-2, TBI-1, and ABI using an automatic oscillometric device at Kawasaki Medical School Hospital, Japan in 2012.
Results: We evaluated 114 feet without severe ischemia symptoms in 57 patients (median age: 73 years). TP-2 was similar to TP-1 (correlation coefficient [r] = 0.769, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.681–0.836, p <0.001). ABI showed a mild correlation with TBI-2 (r = 0.463, 95% CI: 0.303–0.598, p <0.001) and a moderate correlation with TBI-1 (r = 0.586, 95% CI: 0.450–0.696, p <0.001). The TBIs of 0.65 and 0.5 corresponded to the ABIs of about 1.0 and 0.9, respectively, in both toes.
Conclusion: TBI-2 measurement can be considered as an acceptable substitute to TBI-1 or ABI measurement to assess the patients in whom ABI and TBI-1 cannot be measured.
Objectives: To assess the improvement in neurocognitive functions after carotid endarterectomy (CEA) under local anesthesia (LA) in patients with carotid bifurcation occlusive disease.
Place and duration of study: Department of Vascular Surgery, Combined Military Hospital Lahore from January 2013 to January 2015.
Patients and Methods: A total of 79 patients with carotid artery occlusive disease, having no history of major stroke, depression, or dementia underwent CEA under LA. Cognitive functions were assessed 3 days before surgery and then 4 weeks and 12 weeks after the surgery using the Addenbrookes cognitive examination (ACE) score and General Practitioner Assessment of Cognition (GPCOG) Score.
Results: In ACE score, Attention, Memory, Fluency, Language, and Visuospatial orientation improved by 33.3%, 30.7%, 21.4%, 38.4%, and 31.2%, respectively, by the end of 12 weeks. An overall improvement in neurocognition was 32% (P = 0.03). In GPCOG score, Orientation, Recall, and Memory improved by 33%, 20%, and 100%, respectively, with an overall improvement of 33.3% at the end of 12 weeks (P = 0.02).
Conclusion: Both scoring systems show an overall improvement in neurocognition as well as improvements in all the subcategories in each system. Hence, we conclude statistically significant improvement in neurocognitive functions after CEA.
Objective: To investigate skin, subepidermal low echogenic band (SELEB), and subcutaneous tissue (SCT) thickness as well as the degree of increase in subcutaneous echogenicity (SEG) and subcutaneous echo-free space (SEFS) in arms with lymphedema (LE).
Materials and Methods: The skin and SCT of both arms of 30 patients with unilateral stage II breast cancer-related LE were scanned at five points (medial/lateral upper arm/forearm and dorsum of the hand). SEG and SEFS grades were determined according to severity (range: 0–2).
Results: All measured parameters, except the SEFS in the medial upper arm, were significantly higher on the LE side than on the normal (N) side. The parameters differed most remarkably in the medial forearm (MFA; skin: LE 1.7 ± 0.8 mm vs. N 0.8 ± 0.2 mm; SELEB: LE 1.0 ± 0.6 mm vs. N 0.3 ± 0.1 mm; SCT: LE 8.7 ± 3.4 mm vs. N 3.8 ± 2.0 mm; SEG: LE 0.9 ± 0.5 vs. N 0.1 ± 0.3; and SEFS: LE 0.5 ± 0.7 vs. N 0).
Conclusion: The differences in the thickness of the skin, SELEB, and SCT and the SEG and SEFS grades between the LE and N arms seemed most evident in the MFA.
Objective: The objective of this study was to clarify whether or not pulse volume recoding (PVR) parameters have screening capability equivalent to ankle-brachial pressure index after walking (Ex-ABI) for patients with 0.91 or higher ABI.
Patients and Methods: The subjects were 87 patients (147 limbs) with symptoms of lower extremities with 0.91 or higher ABI. In all patients, upstroke time (UT), percentage of mean artery pressure (%MAP) of PVR and Ex-ABI were measured, and computed tomographic angiography (CTA) was concomitantly performed.
Results: Area under the curve (AUC) of receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves of Ex-ABI, %MAP, and UT were 0.90, 0.70, and 0.81, respectively. A significant difference was noted in AUC between Ex-ABI and %MAP (p <0.001). When the cut-off values were set at %MAP ≥45% and UT ≥180 msec, the accuracies of %MAP and UT were markedly lower than that of Ex-ABI. When the cut-off values were corrected to the values determined from the ROC curves (%MAP ≥41, UT ≥164 msec), the diagnostic accuracy of UT increased markedly.
Conclusion: In patients with 0.91 or higher ABI, screening capability of PVR parameters was markedly lower than that of Ex-ABI, but UT has screening capability close to that of Ex-ABI when the cut-off value is corrected downward.
Pseudoaneurysm of the ascending aorta is a rare but life-threatening complication after aortic cannulation and cardiovascular surgery, and it has the potential to rupture. We experienced a rare case of recurrence of aneurysm of the ascending aorta 7 years after patch repair of a small aneurysm at an aortic cannulation site. The repaired aorta had been wrapped with a Teflon felt strip during the previous surgery, and the wrapped aorta had become thin with deterioration of the normal structure of the aortic wall.
The patient described herein was a 75-year-old female. Echocardiography showed patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Heart failure symptoms gradually appeared, and she was referred to our department for treatment. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) revealed a tubular structure communicating between the aortic arch and pulmonary artery trunk, suggesting adult PDA. Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) was performed to close PDA. Completion angiography confirmed the disappearance of PDA. Post-TEVAR CT revealed no endoleak. The patient was discharged from the hospital on the 11th day after surgery. TEVAR is more useful and less invasive for adult PDA than conventional open surgery.
We report lethal hemorrhage from the kidney after thoracic endovascular repair for chronic type B dissection complicated by disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). A 70-year-old woman underwent thoracic endovascular repair to treat chronic DIC. Two weeks after surgery, refractory shock suddenly occurred and computed tomography showed a massive hematoma around the left kidney. Emergent renal artery angiography showed multiple bleeding points in the renal cortex. Immediate embolization of the renal artery was performed and her hemodynamic condition recovered. Physicians should be aware that massive hemorrhage from visceral organs is possible during the perioperative period of endovascular intervention for treatment of DIC.
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is known to be rarely accompanied by disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). We report a case of AAA with DIC. An 81-year-old man with abdominal pain referred to our hospital. Computed tomography demonstrated an AAA (maximum diameter: 90 mm). The patient underwent a laparotomy, and an abdominal aorta replacement was performed. At the 3-month follow-up, the patient underwent Helicobacter pylori eradication treatment for 1 week. After treatment, the platelet count dramatically increased. The mechanism by which H. pylori eradication therapy improves hematological parameters has not been elucidated; however, this noninvasive treatment effectively resolved DIC associated with AAA.
We report a patient who developed ileus caused by vascular stent migration into the duodenum with periprosthetic retroperitoneal abscess. The patient previously underwent removal of an infected abdominal aortic aneurysm with concomitant axillobifemoral arterial reconstruction. An occlusion of the graft leg was treated by a unilateral aortoiliac bypass where endovascular surgery with a metallic stent was later needed. The abscess and ileus were vigorously drained. Following the spontaneous evacuation of the metallic stent via the digestive tract, the abscess was completely drained and fistula closure was achieved without surgical intervention. The patient has remained healthy 6 years thereafter.
We describe the successful surgical treatment of an impending rupture of a saccular descending thoracic aortic aneurysm and accompanying compression of the left main bronchus. A 69-year-old man presented with a history of tingling chest pain lasting for a few hours. His left lung cannot be auscultated, and he was rapid progression of dyspnea. Computed tomography (CT) showed a saccular aneurysm compressing the left main bronchus. The patient was treated with conventional open surgery. The compression was immediately released. No additional surgical intervention was needed and his postoperative course was uneventful. After 6 months of surgery, he remains well.
A 74-year-old man with multiple aortic aneurysms and shaggy aorta was simultaneously treated by conventional open repair for an abdominal aortic aneurysm and endoluminal stent grafting for a thoracic aortic aneurysm. We performed intermittent clamping of the visceral and carotid arteries under an extracorporeal circulation circuit without a blood flow pump, which lead to the avoidance of embolization in spite of the disadvantage of endoluminal stent grafting for atheromatous aorta.
Blunt aortic injures are rarely associated with minimal trauma. We present a 78-year-old man with an aortic pseudoaneurysm resulting from a simple vertebral compression fracture, which was conservatively managed. He was diagnosed with a compression fracture from a minor fall 10 days previously, and fortuitously he visited the hospital after which follow-up computed tomography (CT) for previous multiple aortic surgeries was performed. The enhanced CT revealed a pseudoaneurysm on the abdominal aorta, which was bleeding from a pinhole perforation. He was conservatively treated and follow-up CT 9 months later revealed that the pseudoaneurysm had disappeared.
Frozen elephant trunk (FET) technique combines open surgery and endovascular repair for extensive thoracic aortic aneurysms. When a FET is inserted into the descending thoracic aorta, it is difficult to confirm its proper positioning. Here we report a radiopaque ruler-guided FET technique. On the basis of preoperative computed tomography, we create a roadmap which shows the relationship between the descending thoracic aorta and vertebrae. During surgery, a radiopaque ruler placed beneath the patient’s back provides the accurate target position under fluoroscopy. Our technique is effective to prevent spinal cord injury because it avoids an overly deep implantation of a FET.
Since 2013, the Japanese Society for Vascular Surgery (JSVS) has started the project of nationwide registration and a tracking database for patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI) who are treated by vascular surgeons. The purpose of this project is to clarify the current status of the medical practice for patients with CLI to contribute to the improvement of the quality of medical care. This database, called JAPAN Critical Limb Ischemia Database (JCLIMB), is created on the National Clinical Database (NCD) and collects data of patients’ background, therapeutic measures, early results, and long term prognosis as long as five years after the initial treatment. The limbs managed conservatively are also registered in JCLIMB, together with those treated by surgery and/or EVT. In 2013, 1207 CLI limbs (male 874 limbs: 72%) were registered by 87 facilities. ASO has accounted for 98% of the pathogenesis of these limbs. In this manuscript, the background data and the early prognosis of the registered limbs are reported. (This is a translation of Jpn J Vasc Surg 2016; 25: 215–232.)
Since 2013, the Japanese Society for Vascular Surgery (JSVS) has started the project of nationwide registration and a tracking database for patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI) who are treated by vascular surgeons. The purpose of this project is to clarify the current status of the medical practice for patients with CLI to contribute to the improvement of the quality of medical care. This database, called JAPAN Critical Limb Ischemia Database (JCLIMB), is created on the National Clinical Database (NCD) and collects data of patients’ background, therapeutic measures, early results, and long-term prognosis as long as 5 years after the initial treatment. The limbs managed conservatively are also registered in JCLIMB, together with those treated by surgery and/or endovascular treatment (EVT). In 2014, 1347 CLI limbs (male 936 limbs: 69%) were registered by 95 facilities. Arteriosclerosis obliterans (ASO) has accounted for 97% of the pathogenesis of these limbs. In this manuscript, the background data and the early prognosis of the registered limbs are reported. (This is a translation of Jpn J Vasc Surg 2016;25:293–310.)