Unidimensional graded response models are useful when items are designed to measure a unified latent trait. They are limited in practical instances where the test structure is not readily available or items are not necessarily measuring the same underlying trait. To overcome the problem, this paper proposes a multi-unidimensional normal ogive graded response model under the Bayesian framework. The performance of the proposed model was evaluated using Monte Carlo simulations. It was further compared with conventional polytomous models under simulated and real test situations. The results suggest that the proposed multi-unidimensional model is more general and flexible, and offers a better way to represent test situations not realized in unidimensional models.
Special Issue “The Asia-Pacific Values survey 2010-2014 -Cultural Manifold Analysis (CULMAN) of National Character-”
The Institute of Statistical Mathematics has been conducting a longitudinal survey on Japanese national character since 1953. From 1971, this survey was extended to include cross-national comparative surveys and people of Japanese ancestry in Hawaii, the West Coast of the United States, and Brazil. The cross-national survey primarily focuses on comparing social values, ways of thinking and feeling, and other relevant characteristics of people from various nations. This study investigates conditions under which meaningful cross-national comparability of social survey data is guaranteed, despite differences in languages and statistical sampling methods. Over the past 14 years, focusing on Asian countries, we have carried out the East Asia Values Survey (2002-2005), the Pacific Rim Values Survey (2004-2009), and the Asia-Pacific Values Survey (2010-2014). In this introductory paper to the special issue, we discuss the development of our research paradigm, termed cultural manifold analysis (CULMAN), and provide an overview of our past surveys. We conclude with comments on our future research.
The objective of this study is to review past research on people's sense of trust as reflected in the data from longitudinal and cross-national comparative surveys by the Institute of Statistical Mathematics. First, I explain some history of our survey research. Second, I give a brief review of the studies on sense of trust. Third, I summarize some aspects of the fundamental social values of the Japanese and their sense of interpersonal trust as identified in our Japanese National Character Survey. Fourth, I present a cross-national comparative analysis of interpersonal trust and institutional trust, including the Seven Country Survey (Japan, the USA, and five European countries) (1987-1993), Japanese immigrant surveys, the East Asia Values Survey (2002-2005), the Pacific-Rim Values Survey (2004-2009), and the Asia-Pacific Values Survey (2010-2014). To overcome the limitations of the studies based mostly on the items of the General Social Survey or the World Values Survey, I explore more basic social values on human bonds that may underlie people's sense of trust beyond differences in countries or time. The final section presents some comments for our future research.
This article explores the characteristics of Vietnamese social values identified in the Asia Pacific Values Survey's 2013 Vietnam survey data. The questions used in this article fall into three categories: politics, international relations, and economics. I analyze the characteristics of Vietnamese with respect to three aspects. The first aspect is Vietnamese characteristics at the national level by comparing Vietnam with other nations. The second aspect is differences between the North and South areas. The third aspect is differences between the generation that experienced and remembers the Vietnam War and the young generation of the post-Vietnam War era. The most interesting group is the older generation of the South because they grew up in a democratic and capitalist society and now live in a communist society, and they experienced the Vietnam War. I mainly elucidate how their characteristics are different from or similar to those of other Vietnamese groups.
This paper focuses on “sense of Ikigai” and social support shown in the peoples' response data obtained from the Asia Pacific Values Survey 11countries/areas. Although researchers have not yet agreed on a single definition of the term Ikigai, a very common word in Japanese, for the purposes of this study I tentatively use the term “reason for living” to mean Ikigai. The results show that Japan, South Korea, and the Chinese cultural sphere share common relationships, in contrast to the United States and India. In particular, in East Asian countries both emotional and appraisal support have impacts on perceived reason for living. In other words, a sense of social bond with others and receiving praise and acknowledgment are factors contributing to a sense of Ikigai in those countries.
The relation of social capital to adult health and well-being was examined using data from Asia Pacific Values Survey (2010-2014). The relationships between health and well-being factors (self-reported somatic symptoms [SRSS], subjective health satisfaction [HS], lifesatisfaction [LS], and family life satisfaction [FS]) and social factors (socioeconomic status [SES]) were analyzed by a logistic regression model. Adjusting for SES, the lack of trust measured by three social capital items was related to poor SRSS, HS, LS, and FS, but some relationships were not significant. Among the Asia Pacific countries, Singapore showed good health and well-being compared with Japan. This study provides evidence that social capital dimensions are positively associated with SRSS and overall well-being in Asia Pacific countries.