We report the results of a randomized experiment conducted in Japan as part of a mail survey of voters. In this experiment, we examined whether or not inserting a pen in the questionnaire would improve the response rate. We employed a two-by-two treatment in which we varied the price of the pen (high-priced or low-priced) and whether or not the pen was inserted in a paper-made box. We found that providing a pen increased the response rate by more than nine percentage points. We also found that a low-priced pen inserted in a box was more effective than other condisions. However, the effect of the high-priced pen was not statistically distinguishable from that of the low-priced one.
Asymmetric multidimensional scaling (AMDS) is a visualization method that can be applied to asymmetric (dis)similarity data,which are adopted in several areas such as marketing research, psychometrics, and information science. Several researchers within these fields have examined and applied AMDS.However, the combination of the number of modes and ways remains fixed across these AMDS.Thus, the choice of model is largely contingent on the number of modes and ways.To overcome this problem, we propose an AMDS using a log-linear model with an m-way frequency table.Using the log-linear model, we apply AMDS to (dis)similarity data without a fixed number of modes and ways.In addition, we were able to simultaneously visualize two types of circles.