Previously, we isolated and examined a bacterial strain designated as TM-I-3, belonging to the genus Bacillus, from soil in Nagasaki, Japan. This bacterium was able to inhibit the growth of molds, without coming into direct contact with them. Non-contact antifungals are capable of providing multidirectional inhibition and may contribute to disease prevention. In this study, we revealed the bacteriological properties of TM-I-3 and evaluated the antifungal activity of the compounds emitted from this bacterium. In addition, we analyzed the antimicrobial substances released from TM-I-3 using GC/MS to elucidate the mechanism of its action. Antimicrobial compounds from strain TM-I-3 were identified as acetic acid, propanoic acid, isovaleric acid, 2-methylbutanoic acid, and benzaldehyde, which are all reported to have antimicrobial activity. TM-I-3 demonstrated possible efficacy in inhibiting the growth of Aspergillus fumigatus, Cladosporium cladosporioides and Penicillium expansum, which may lead to inhibition of common fungal contaminants of household products and prevention of some pulmonary diseases.
Capsicum annuum L. is infected by Fusarium Wilt and causes significant yield losses in Pakistan. Biological control is an excellent and environment friendly way. Presently, the biocontrol assays were conducted in pot trials using methanolic leaf extract of Eucalyptus citriodora L. where spray of extract prior to infection provided better protection from pathogen with maximum disease control. Further, Native page electrophoresis was performed to find out difference in expression profile of enzyme which revealed that control and T2 (Plant sprayed with Eucalyptus extract) did not exhibit any difference in their isozyme profile signifying no extra load of biological control measure on plant for the production of defense elements until the pathogen arrived. While in case of T3 （Protective treatment） and T4 (Curative treatment) extra isozyme (PO1) was observed in T4 only, PPO1 and PPO5, and PAL 2 and PAL 3 were comprised in higher quantities in T3 and T4 over control exposing the expression of plant metabolism under pathogen attack. The study concludes that the organic extract of E. citriodora have the potential to restrain the disastrous effects of pathogenic fungi. It will lead to the different aspect of biocontrol to suppress the plant pathogenic fungi in a broad spectrum.
Atypical Aeromonas salmonicida ( i.e. subsp. achromogenes and subsp. masoucida) are one of the major opportunistic pathogens that cause ulcer diseases in a variety of fishes, in which this pathogen has become a worldwide economic threat in sectors that handle of particular high-priced ornamental fishes like varicolored carp and goldfish due to appearance damages. Here we reported that the kuma bamboo grass (Sasa veitchii) extracts (KBGE) that contained a variety of fatty acids, exhibited antibacterial activity against nine Aeromonas strains including 5 atypical A. salmonicida strains. Experimental challenges with four atypical A. salmonicida strains revealed that supplementation with 375 to 750 μg/ml of the KBGE restored the survival of goldfish in coincidence of inhibition of both bacterial replication and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity upon infection, compared with those of untreated control. Together, our data demonstrating the antibacterial effects of the plant extracts proposes its possible implication for prevention of Aeromonas infection in the ornamental fish.
Ozonated water (OW) is presently used as a chemical disinfectant in many fields, due to its versatile antimicrobial properties. As ozone rapidly decomposes to oxygen, especially in the presence of organic matter, it is important to estimate the authentic antimicrobial activity of OW in the presence of contaminants. However, the effect of contaminants on the antimicrobial activity of OW has not been fully investigated. To address this, we evaluated the effect of protein contaminants on the antimicrobial activity of OW. The survival rate of each tested microorganism excluding Bacillus subtilis spores was reduced to less than 0.1%, when the microorganism suspension was exposed to 9.1 ppm of OW for 15 s in the presence of 0.0045% protein. Our study therefore suggests that approximately 10 ppm of OW can reduce the survival rates of almost all microorganisms in the presence of proteins.
Contamination of agricultural crops by mycotoxins has increased because of the expansion of mycotoxin-producing fungi along with global warming. In this study, the fungal microflora of brown rice grains cultivated in Kyushu region in the southern part of Japan was investigated. A total of 75% of rice samples examined in this study showed less than 30% of fungal contamination rates with a median rate of 12.5%. Some isolates of Aspergillus flavus showed the ability to produce aflatoxins (AFs) (AFB1 production was 62.5-70.4 ng/mL) . Furthermore, AF-producing Aspergillus flavus survived during storage and Aspergillus creber, which produced sterigmatocystin, was detected in a stored rice sample. Although AFs or sterigmatocystin-contamination was not detected in any rice samples, these mycotoxin-producing fungi are distributed and can survive during storage under the natural conditions in Japan. Employing suitable storage conditions is important for preventing mycotoxin contamination of brown rice grains.
Spores of Bacillus subtilis suspended in water or aqueous solution of NaCl, CaCl2, sodium lactate, or calcium lactate at pH 4 – 7 was subjected to spore inactivation by simultaneous combination of medium high hydrostatic pressure (MHHP; 100 MPa) treatment for germination and medium high temperature (MHT; 65℃) treatment for pasteurization of germinated vegetative cells. The spores at pH 4 in NaCl solution and those at pH 5 and 6 in Na lactate solutions were less killed than in water by MHHP+MHT treatment. Spore inactivation was promoted by calcium ion in NaCl solution at pH 4 and in Na lactate solutions at pH 5 and pH 6, while it was more suppressed at pH 5 and pH 6 in Na lactate solutions than at pH 4 in NaCl solution. The spores treated by MHHP+MHT in NaCl or Na lactate solution at pH 4 were further killed by subsequent MHT treatment.
We investigated the midstream bottom of the Tama River, which flows through Tokyo, to evaluate the occurrence and degree of antibiotic-resistant fecal coliforms including multidrug-resistant fecal coliforms. The genera Klebsiella and Escherichia were the major isolates among the fecal coliforms. For the genus Klebsiella, the highest antibiotic resistance was observed for ampicillin (100%) , followed by kanamycin, tetracycline, cefotaxime, and cefoxitin. The highest resistance to E. coli was found for kanamycin (44.4%) , followed by ampicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, amoxicillin-clavulanate, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and aztreonam. Multidrug resistance （MDR） was observed in three E. coli isolates. A double disc synergy test confirmed the production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases by the six-antibiotic-resistant isolate E. coli hfa7, and the strain had CTX-M-1 group gene. Assessments of antibiotic-resistant fecal coliforms at the bottom of the Tama River are important toward the goals of preventing the spread of antibiotic-resistant fecal coliforms in humans, animals, and the environment.
We tested treatement with UV irradiation for controlling the growth of bread mold. First, we analyzed the sterilizing effect of a dose of approximately 25 mJ/cm2 radiation on nine Penicillium and two Talaromyces strains that were isolated from a bread-manufacturing plant. The P. chermesinum and P. paneum strains were sterilized completely at that dose, while it was only partially effective against P. corylophilum. P. chrysogenum and P. decumbens were sterilized at a dose of approximately 120 mJ/cm2, while T. amestolkiae was sterilized at approximately 150 mJ/cm2. Sterilization of T. cecidicola and P. hispanicum required more than 200 mJ/cm2 of radiation. These results suggest that UV resistance varies depending on the species and the strains. We also carried out UV irradiation of bread at 70 mJ/cm2: a dose at which the taste of bread is not affected; we observed that mold growth was delayed visibly compared to the non-irradiated bread. These results suggest that UV irradiation at 70 mJ/cm2 is effective at delaying mold growth, though it does not cause complete sterilization. This method should prove useful for extending the shelf-life of bread.