Bird Research
Online ISSN : 1880-1595
Print ISSN : 1880-1587
ISSN-L : 1880-1587
Volume 13
Displaying 1-12 of 12 articles from this issue
Original Articles
  • Tomoko Tani, Ken Ishida, Mikio Takashi, Takahisa Mori
    2017 Volume 13 Pages A1-A13
    Published: 2017
    Released on J-STAGE: March 16, 2017
    Supplementary material
    The Amami jay Garrulus lidthi, a species of forest bird endemic to the Amami Islands, Japan, breeds between February and early June. The early start of breeding may give the species some advantages, such as the possibility of increased reproductive success due to breeding in a season when potential predators are inactive. However, to benefit from this potential seasonal advantage, adults must obtain enough food to successfully raise chicks throughout the breeding period. We investigated the availability food resources and the diet for Amami jay during the early breeding season. We conducted the study by observing and collecting available prey items between February and May 2012, including arthropods, with methods such as visual encounter along line transects, beating and netting from the vegetation, and pit-fall traps. We also recorded the food provisioned to chicks by identifying prey from video recordings at nest sites, and by fecal analyses of chicks. We found that the most frequent food item provisioned to chicks were arthropods such as Blattodea, Orthoptera, Coleoptera, Mecoptera, Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, Araneae, and Opiliones. Those results suggest that the Amami jay captures ground cursorial species during the early spring (February and March) breeding period. The availability of these arthropods varied during the season, but those arthropods were the most available prey species in terms of both population and biomass throughout the breeding season. These findings suggest that the Amami jay has a broad prey base of ground-dwelling arthropods that it utilizes, and that according to changing prey availability during the breeding season, it can vary the food items that it provisions to its young.
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  • Keita Fukasawa, Yoshio Mishima, Nao Kumada, Akio Takenaka, Akira Yoshi ...
    2017 Volume 13 Pages A15-A28
    Published: 2017
    Released on J-STAGE: July 19, 2017
    Supplementary material

    We have engaged in acoustic monitoring inside and outside of the evacuation zone suffered the impact of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident since 2014. Not only to promote communication between researchers and local community but also to improve transparency of the research processes, we held an event, “Bird Data Challenge in Fukushima”, in 2015. In the event, we listened to the audio data and made the identified species list of birds with participants using a newly-developed web-based interface for acoustic identification, “SONO-TORI”, and a semi-real-time visualization system, “SONO-TORI VIS”. In the event, 30 participants were divided into five small groups, and listened to the audio data of 63 minutes and succeeded to identify 23 bird species in total. The results of questionnaires on the participants showed that the level of satisfaction and willingness to revisit was substantially high. We also found that mutual communication between participants and improvement of identification skill had significant effects on the level of satisfaction. Although there are several things to be improved in the way to share the result with participants and to assign the appropriate tasks, our attempt showed a potential of identification of birds from recorded birdsongs as an event format of citizen-participating survey.

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  • Yasuo Shimada, Minoru Inoue, Mutsuyuki Ueta
    2017 Volume 13 Pages A29-A41
    Published: 2017
    Released on J-STAGE: July 14, 2017

    We observed the flight behavior of white-tailed sea eagles Haliaeetus albicilla at the town of Tomamae in northern Hokkaido from 2009 to 2016, to determine how the eagles’ flight behavior was affected by updrafts created by the topography of coastal cliffs. The frequency, location, direction and speed of eagle flights were recorded by theodolite, along with weather conditions and topographic variables. Based on those variables, a statistical model of flight behavior was created. The eagles flew in the study area most frequently when the wind blew in the west-northwesterly direction (29.5%), and in the westerly direction (23.5%). The statistical model, based on the flight frequency of the eagles and the terrain variables in the 10m grid, indicated that slope degree, slope direction (east-northeast and west-northwest), number of cliffs, and presence of coastline had a positive effect on the flight frequency. Based on this model, we performed a numerical simulation of airflow in the survey area. As a result, it was determined that as the wind velocity increased, the resulting updraft generated by the coastal cliff developed farther away from the cliff. The eagles were observed flying farther out to sea when the wind blew stronger, apparently to make use of the updraft located further from the shore. The observed flight speed of eagles flying along the cliffs was less than the minimum flight speed required to maintain their altitude, as estimated by the general lift model. In this case, eagles would be expected to lose altitude and descend. However, the result of the simulation showed that the updraft at the particular position of the eagles’ flights were stronger than the estimated subsidence force. We conclude that updrafts occurring in the vicinity of the cliffs overcome the subsidence.

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  • Takaumi Ishikawa, Kanami Ara, Osamu Mikami
    2017 Volume 13 Pages A43-A53
    Published: 2017
    Released on J-STAGE: November 30, 2017

    Crows Corvus macrorhynchos & C. corone foraging on garbage that has been placed on public streets for collection is a hygiene issue for communities in many areas of Japan. In Hakodate City, we conducted a study to identify factors affecting the frequency of damage to garbage bags by crows. Typically, citizens select their own type of container to hold plastic garbage bags while on the street awaiting garbage collection. Crows often pull the plastic bags out from the containers, or peck through gaps in the containers to create holes in the plastic bags, which results in garbage scattered on the road. To answer the following three questions, we collected data on this process: (1) Is there a seasonal difference in the frequency of crows foraging on garbage bags, or a seasonal variation in foraging on specific types of containers? (2) Is there a temporal difference in the probability of crows damaging garbage bags? (3) Of the most common types of metal enclosure for garbage bags used in Hakodate City, which is the most vulnerable to the crows’ attack? We studied 2,000 garbage bags during the summer and the winter of 2016. The results were that (1) garbage bags were damaged more in the wintering season than in the breeding season, (2) garbage bags put out in the early morning were damaged more frequently than those put out late in the morning, and (3) garbage bags in the metal mesh enclosures with the larger mesh size, and with a greater number of inner surfaces in direct contact with garbage bags, were damaged more frequently by crows. These results can help us design garbage containers that provide additional protection from foraging crows, and reduce the resulting unhygienic mess on public streets.

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  • Koyo Nakagawa, Shumpei Kitamura
    2017 Volume 13 Pages A55-A68
    Published: 2017
    Released on J-STAGE: December 07, 2017
    Supplementary material

    We investigated fruit removal from an evergreen shrub Aucuba japonica var. borealis to identify the seed dispersers in a Japanese cedar plantation, central Japan. In April 2015, we established four study plots in a cedar plantation of Ishikawa Agriculture and Forestry Research Center, Forestry Experiment Station, and every week we monitored the fate of 980 fruits of 51 fruiting individuals of Aucuba japonica var. borealis. We conducted camera-trapping to observe fruit removal by frugivores, and observed that 428 fruits (353 fruits on the trees and 75 fallen fruits on the forest floor) were removed from April to June 2015. Fruits were rapidly removed from the shrubs (41.7% of 980 fruits were removed after one week, 97.2% after two weeks, and 98.3% after three weeks). During 465 camera-days, we recorded six species of birds and six species of mammals that visited the focal shrubs, and found that only brown-eared bulbuls Hypsipetes amaurotis removed the fruits. The bulbuls were recorded in all study plots and the median number of fruit taken per visit was 2 (1-6 fruits, n=41). Nearly 80% of the fruits on the shrubs and those on the ground were consumed by brown-eared bulbuls. In some cases, consumption by the birds could not be observed, and was inferred by behavior. These observations suggest that brown-eared bulbuls are the primary seed dispersers, in terms of quantity, for Aucuba japonica var. borealis at the study site. Further studies, such as comparative studies in different forest types, and to examine the annual variation of fruit removal, are recommended to expand the results obtained in this study. We suggest that, for those purposes, camera-trapping is one of the best methods to investigate the fruit removal of Aucuba japonica var. borealis by birds in the field.

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  • Kaoru Fujii
    2017 Volume 13 Pages A69-A77
    Published: 2017
    Released on J-STAGE: December 17, 2017

    To estimate the population size and distribution of migrant Brent Geese Branta bernicla in Japan, the Eastern Hokkaido Brent Goose Research Network organized simultaneous counts during autumn, winter and spring for 3 years between 2014 and 2017. Out of the 32 survey sites in Japan, 27 sites recorded one or more individuals. Among these sites, 16 sites recorded more than 65 individuals, which is a threshold number representing 1% of the estimated regional population (Ramsar Criterion 6). Those sites are considered to be important for migration, and include Kunashir Island, Notsuke Bay, Lake Furen, Hamanaka/Biwase, Akkeshi Bay, Urakawa, the vicinity of Date, the eastern part of Oshima Peninsula, the vicinity of Hakodate Bay, the vicinity of Shimokita Peninsula (Aomori Prefecture), the vicinity of Mutsu Bay (Aomori Pref.), the Pacific Ocean coast in Aomori Pref., Iwate Pref., Minamisanriku 1 (Miyagi Pref.), Minamisanriku 2 (Miyagi Pref.), and the coast of Gamou (Miyagi Pref.). The maximum total population recorded in these counts was 8,602, which was recorded in the autumn of 2015 and more than 84% of the total (7,233), was recorded in Notsuke Bay. The population size for Brent Geese that visit Japan was estimated to be approximately 8,600 in autumn, 2,500 in winter and 3,100 in spring. Eighty to ninety percent of Brent Geese in Japan during autumn and spring migrations concentrated in an area including Notsuke Bay and southern Kunashir Island, and the ratio of birds that visited southern Kunashir Island was higher in spring. When evaluating the number of birds observed overwintering in Japan (2,500), and the number of spring passage birds observed in eastern Hokkaido (3,100), the wintering sites and spring migration routes of up to 60% of the observed fall passage migrants (8,600) are unknown.

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Short Communications
  • Toshimitsu Nuka, Kazuyuki Kojima, Shigeru Nagatomo, Makiko Maekawa
    2017 Volume 13 Pages S1-S4
    Published: 2017
    Released on J-STAGE: April 15, 2017
    We recorded the first breeding record of black-tailed gulls Larus crassirostris in TokyoBay in 2015, and again in 2016. On 18 June 2015, chicks were observed in a nest constructed on a collision-barrier protecting the pier support of a railroad bridge in Tokyo Bay. In 10 May 2016, two nests with 3 eggs were observed at the same site and an additional 10 to 20 nests were estimated around the original site. Chicks were observed on 18 May 2016, and 16 juveniles were counted on 24 June 2016. Based on the previous breeding records in Tokyo, black-tailed gulls have moved their breeding site from inland areas to more seaside areas, and have now started to breed in Tokyo Bay.
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  • Tetsuo Shimada, Ueda Taketoshi, Hoshi Masatoshi, Mori Akira
    2017 Volume 13 Pages S5-S9
    Published: 2017
    Released on J-STAGE: May 12, 2017
    Use of foraging habitat by the Whooper Swan Cygnus cygnus was observed to determine habitat selection in relation to water level of Lake Izunuma-Uchinuma, a shallow lake in northern Japan. During the wintering season of 2008/2009, the abundance of swans was recorded at a variety of suitable foraging habitats in the vicinity of the lake. During 21 counts, the mean abundance of swans was 645 birds (range 186 to 1,239). As the water level in the lake increased, the percentage of swans foraging in the areas of lotus and wild rice significantly decreased, while swans increased in rice fields. As the aquatic plants became unavailable due to deepening of the lake, it appears that swans shifted their feeding habitats to those that remained shallow or exposed.
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  • Jun-ichi Ebina, Katsura Mikami
    2017 Volume 13 Pages S11-S17
    Published: 2017
    Released on J-STAGE: June 30, 2017
    Supplementary material
    We report nest site characteristics and seasonality of breeding behaviors observed in a Common Crossbill Loxia curvirostra population of Shimokita Peninsula, Northern Japan. Twenty nests were observed during the six breeding seasons from 2010/2011 to 2015/2016. Observation of banded birds confirmed that at least some crossbills were residential breeders in the study site. During the winter of 2012/2013 season, when ripe pine cones were scarce, we were unable to find any nests. The crossbills of this population, therefore, seem to opportunistic breeders, as reported for populations in other countries. Most of the nests were placed at the edge of black pine Pinus thunbergii forests. The nest height ranged from 8 to 18.4 m. The main breeding season was from November to April, which seems adapted to the timing of ripening pine cones
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  • Mutsuyuki Ueta, Yasuo Shimada, Toshimitsu Nuka, Koya Sato
    2017 Volume 13 Pages S19-S25
    Published: 2017
    Released on J-STAGE: September 14, 2017
    Supplementary material

    A wind farm was constructed 3.1km offshore of Choshi city, in east-central Japan, The facility was established as a test-case, to allow studies of various related factors, including mechanical, meteorological, and environmental. To assess the risk of offshore wind turbines to seabirds, we studied the tracks of seabirds by using a marine radar in 2013 and 2016. The radar showed that the tracks of seabirds were concentrated in areas more distant from the wind turbine, and were scarcer near the turbine. The seabird tracks that did pass nearby the turbine appeared to follow routes to avoid the turbine. These observations suggest that seabirds altered flight patterns to detour around the wind turbine. On the other hand, seabirds flew significantly closer to the wind turbine in 2016 than in 2013, which may show habituation. Further study is needed to clarify the risk of offshore wind farms on seabirds, and to illustrate in detail the behavioral reactions of seabirds.

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  • Ayumu Hamachi, Shingo Uemura, Kunihiro Nakachi, Masaoki Takagi
    2017 Volume 13 Pages S27-S33
    Published: 2017
    Released on J-STAGE: October 19, 2017
    Supplementary material

    We observed the occurrence of Large Hawk-Cuckoos Hierococcyx sparverioides and Asian Koels Eudynamys scolopaceus from 2015-2017 at the Oono Forest in Miyako Island, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan. Two Asian Koels (a male and a female) were present for more than two months during the breeding season of 2015, and this suggests that they may have attempted breeding, although there was no confirmed observation of reproductive behavior. These two species are increasingly recorded in Japan, which suggests that these species are expanding their distribution northward.

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  • Haruko Ando, Yuka Mori, Nozomu Sato
    2017 Volume 13 Pages S35-S40
    Published: 2017
    Released on J-STAGE: November 11, 2017

    We observed the inter-island movements of Japanese Wood Pigeons Columba janthina between Hachijo-jima and Hachijo-kojima in the Izu Islands on July 1, 2017. In total, about 2000 birds moved between the two islands during the 8 hours of observation. Average population density of C. janthina per 1 km of census line was much higher in Hachijo-kojima (69.93) than that in Hachijo-jima (1.54). Breeding behavior of C. janthina was also observed frequently in Hachijo-kojima, an uninhabited islet adjacent to Hachijo-jima, which seemed to be suitable breeding habitat for C. janthina because of its low degree of anthropogenic disturbance. On the other hand, due to the islet’s small size, it may be hard for C. janthina to obtain enough food resources on Hachjo-kojima. To augment the low food resources available on the smaller island, C. janthina may frequently move between Hachijo-jima and Hachijo-kojima.

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