1. Onogahara and Odamiyama districts in Ehime prefecture, Shikoku are formed of limestone and chert Pareozoic). The former is the only karst topography in Shikoku, where the various plant communities are developed. The latter is mainly formed of chert, and the large area of it is covered with forests. 2. In Komatsugaike, a small pond of Onogahara, Nympaea japono-koreana-Brasenia purpurea community is developed. 3. Swamps are found here and there in Onogahara, where Scirpus wichurui f. borealis-Carex maculata community is usually recognized. Sphagnum community also occurs at momatsugaide. 4. The extensive area of Onoghara is now covered with Sasa sp. -Miscanthus sinensis community. It is consi ered that the occurrence of this community is due to the destruction of the climax forests in the past. Nowadays, the plantation of Pinus densiflora and Larix kaempferi is found in this area. 5. The greater part of the forests belongs to the deciduous broadleaved forest region. But Tsuga sieboldii is dominant in the lower part than about 1000m above sealevel. The beech forest, a climatic climax of this district, is Fagus crenata-Sasamorpha purpurascens association. As the edaphic climaxes, Chama cyparis obutusa community and Pterocarya rhoifolia community are found respectively on the rocky ridge and along the valley.
The comparison of newly grown algal communities at the end of full one year after the denudation with the untreated Corallina community adjoined on the same rock surface was preciesely made by the samples at the lower littoral belt extracted from the previous data. Especially the repopulation of Corallinaceous algae, which have been considered generally as an impediment to the increase of useful algae, was carefully studied. The obtained results are summerised as follows : 1) The untreated surface is covered by a climax association of Corallina pilulifera, while the newly grown vegetation on the same level is a complex society. In the former case a few species of miniature erect perenial algae occupy all over the rock surface. In the latter, however, curstaceous and cushionous annual algae are comparatively dominant, erect-annual algae come next in frequency, and then erect-perenial algae (e.g. Corallina pilulifera, Sargassum Thunbergii) are sparesly scattered. 2) A species of Melobseiae (a crustaceous coralline) migrated as a pioneer to this denuded surface. But the present authors forecast that erect-perenial algae including Corallina will eliminate finally this Melobesiae-species and other annual algae from the surface.
These studies were conducted on the sandy seashore and dunes in the vicinity of Kanazawa, Ishikawa Prefecture. We found that the soils which were covered with vegetation usually had a very low NaCl content. In the places near the shore, the NaCl content in the dry sand was 0.003%-0.008%. In the places about 300 meters or more from the shore, only traces of NaCl were found. An exception, however, was found in a community of Carex Kobomugi OHWI, where the soils contained 0.056% of NaCl. The pH values, found in soils covered with vegetation, were between 6.2 and 8.2. Thus the soil usually tends to be slightly alkaline or neutral in the places near the shore, and to be slightly acid in the places away from the shore.
1. The northern side of the Awa-Sanuki range is occupied widely by a cenozoic formation which has been presumed to belong to the Pleistocene. This formation consists of sandstone, conglomerate and silt with plant remaines. Pollen samples were obtained from Kitano in Saida-mura and Kubo in Shitika-mura, Kagawa Prefecture. It is found as the result of pollen analysis of this formation that conifers such as Abies, Tsuga, Pseudotsnga, Pinus and Taxodiaceae preponderated throughout, but some warmth loving trees such as Liquidambar are seen in small amount. 2. The results of pollen analysis of the cenozoic formation at Mama, suburbs of Kochi city (including the result in previous paper) are more or less similar to that of Kitano ; taxodiaceous trees preponderated throughout, the other conifers were relatively abundant and Liquidambar also is seen. 3. From these facts it may be inferred that the floral composition shown in both formations is similar to that of the present community at the height of about 1000m in Shikoku, and the presence of Liquidambar which is distributed to the sub-tropical area at present leads to the conclusion that both formations were deposited at the height of about 1000m above the sea level and that the pollen of Liquidambar were carried in from lower altitudes by the wind. Both formations may be correlated to the upper Pliocene.
1. The seedilngs of the Japanese morning glory, Pharbitis Nil known as one of the most sensitive short day palnts were used as a material. The effects of a localized warming of the single leaf, petiole, stem, and terminal bud on flower formation were studied in order to find out if the principal effects of high temperature were upon the induction within the leaf, transolocation of the stimulus for flower initiation from leaf to meristems, or on morphogenous reactions at the apical meristem. 2. When a single leaf was given high temperature at 36℃ during the dark period of 16 hours, flower formation did not occure. 3. When petiol, stem and terminal bud were continouously given high temperature at 36℃, also no flower formation occured. 4. When petiol, stem, and terminal bud were treated with high temperature at 36℃ during 16 hour dark period, greatest flower inhibition occured in the terminal bud, but slight flower inhibition in other lots. 5. The 1st node of flower bud in the lots of high temperature usually rose slightly higher than one in control. 6. Significant differece in stem elongation rate during the high temperature treatment could not be observed except that of stem elongation in the lot of single leaf high temperature which was promoted more than control.
1. Attempting pollen analysis on the Mogami coal-field and Okitama coal-field of those in Yamagata Prefecture, comparative investigations between strata and distribution of fossil pollen were carried out. 2. In the Mogami coal-field, climatic division and changes of genera between upper formation and lower formation are obvious from the facts of predominance of extinct genera such as Sequoia, Taxodium, Liquidambar, Cunninghamia and others in the stage of the lower coal-bearing fornation and of predominance of temperate genera such as Alnus, Fagus, Quercus, Juglans and others in the stage of the upper coal-bearing formation. 3. Fossil pollen found in the Okitama coal-field is justly the same as those in the Mogami coal-field. Therefore, it may be concluded that the plant geographical distribution in the whole prefecture of Yamagata is quitely the same and a vast flora consisted chiefly of extinct genera such as Sequoia, Taxodium and others have covered there. 4. From the pollen-analytical results, it is deduced that floral genera of lignites of Mogami coal-field and Okitama coal-field are alike each other and are contemporary with those of Pliocene, Tertiary of the Mogami district.
1) The authors once reported the relation between Motomura's law of geometrical progression and Preston's lognormal curve, This is the further report about such a problem. As essentials of Motomura's law, the sample size (Numata 1950,Nobuhara 1953,) and the method of testing fitness (Ito and Numata 1954) and so on were pointed out till now. Motomura started perhaps not paying sufficient regard to the theoretical model of biological universe, and his law is likely to be adequate approximately for the data only when the sample size is considerably small sample of an universe of lognormal and other type. 2) Recently, Shinozaki and Urata (1953) showed the close relation of Motomura's law to Corbet's harmonic series, Fisher's logarithmic series, and Preston's lognormal curve based on their heterogeneity concept. There, Motomura's law : log n+a(x_n-b)=0,where x_n is the order of a species whose number of individuals is n. The order of a species : x_n=b-1/a log n. The number of species whose number of individuals is n : S_n=x_n-x_n^<-1>, then Sn=1/a log (n+1)/n. Now, if the commonness of species followed the law of geometrical progression, the number of species in each octave would be indicated as Table 1 and Fig. 1. This is much different from Preston's model of population. 3) The data of beech forest at Mr. Dsisen, Tottori Prefecture explain that there are three types of population, that is, GP type which fit for the geometrical series, non-GP type or S type which is derived from Shinozaki and Urata's homogeneity concept, and intermediate type (Fig. 2) And GP type populations were found at ridges where the habitat conditions were bad, and non-GP types, at valleys where those conditions were better. The summation of 20 GP type populations indicated S type as shown in Fig. 3 Now, a random sample from S type population is considered to be adequate for the geometrical series (Shinozaki and Urata 1953). This state of affairs is similar to the author's previous discussion about the relation between Motomura's law and Preston's lognormal curve. 4) The data of commonness of species in that beech forest were adequate for the geometrical series only when the size of samples was small or some proper stratification according to life-forms was done (Fig. 4 and 5), and the cases not adequate for the geometrical series resemble S type population. Namely, Motomura's law is fit for small and homogeneous groups of life-forms based on individual niches. In such a meaning, the geometrical series is a "law of niche", and the universe structure theory as Preston's lognormal curve is a "law of habitat" which consists of several niches. It is common to the state of affairs mentioned above that the geometrical series is adequate for the data when the size of sample is small or habitat conditions are severe and homogeneous.
1) Our "Muro-yosui" is a small artificial irrigation trench, 24 km long, 7 m wide and 70 cm deep, located east parts of Aichi Pref., taking the water out of the middle of a river, Toyogawa and irrigating rice fields of about 3,000 acres near around. It was built in 1890 with the purpose of irrigating. 2) They let water run in this trench from the beginning of May till the end of October every year for the irrigation and, as a rule, leave it dry during the rest period. There are, however, left several exceptional regions, where water runs or water pools are left in autumn and winter. 3) In those regions where water runs abundantly only in summer and the bottom is sandy, we find Vallisneria asiatica community over all and in those where muddy, Hydrilla verticillata community over all. The scale of the both communities is fairly big. 4) In those regions water runs just scarcely or only water pools are left in winter and the bottom is sandy, we find Vallisneria asiatica-Potamogeton distinctus community and in those where muddy, Potamogeton oxyphyllus-P, Maschianus community. In other regions these two communities are found mixed in mosaic way. Moreover, in muddy regions pure communities of Potamogeton crispus are also found. All these communities are small in scale. 5) Thus, the author wants to conclude that the distribution of water plants on the bottom of the trench is dominated by the size of soil rgains of its bottom and the presence or absence of water in it during winter, the latter factor seeming to be greatly concerned with the existence of the plants growing there or their winter buds.
1) Mt. Daisen (1713m, 35°20′. N., 133°30′L.E.), which is the highest mountain in the Chugoku district, is an extinct volcano and its volcanic rock is andesite. The northern side, which makes up the wall of the crater, is on the leeward side, while the southern side is to the windward and is piled up with volcanic lave, ashes and rock scraps. The cliffs of the S-side are crumbled mainly through the agency of the wind or rain. It is softer in composition than the N-side where the curmbled condition is due to the agency of water freezing produced in the rock fissures and not to wind and rain. 2) On the slopes surrounding the peak lie scattered many alluvial cones which differ from one another in their shapes. The cones on the N-side assume a fan-shape form and at the lower region they show more gentle slopes than at the upper region, and at a transvers of the slope they are convex in form. On the W-slope the cones show the form which is almost same with the N-side, but at a transvers of the slope they are concave. On the S-slope the lower regions are steep sloping and at a transvers they are plane. The surface layers of the W-, the S-cones, being composed of more gravels and debris when compared with the N-side, are in continuous movement by the wind and rain. 3) The investigation of the vegetation of the cliffs discloses that there are the characteristic plants such as those which possess long subterranean parts, differential anchoring roots, short terrestrial part with their crowded stems, or rhizomes having strong revival features, etc. On the N-cliff due to the more favorable conditions for development of the vegetation, there are more plants, ordinarily, than on the N-cliff. 4) The degree of stabilization of the ground surface causes the differential development of the plant community, and so from the aspect of the communities we divide the alluvial cones in to three parts, viz : (1) "Unstable region" ("U-R") : the region where only herb comunity (Polygonum cuspidatum) is developed. (2) "Half-stable region" ("H-S-R") : the region where shrub comunity (Salix vulpina)is developed (3) "Almost-stable region" ("A-S-R") : the region where the community of Alunus pendula with young trees is developed. The N-, the W-alluvial cones contain these three regions from upper to lower, but on the S-alluvial cones these three regions arrange side by side. 5) On the N-alluvial cones in the "U-R" Polygonum cuspidatum is pionner and dominant species, which has the short stems and long rhizomes, and so can stand against the ground surface movement, not to be destroyed. In this region at the more stable parts Artemisia princeps more dominates than P. cuspidatum. In the "H-S-R" occurs the S. vulpina-Calamagrostis arundinacea comm., and in the "A-S-R" the A. Pendula-S. vulpina comm. appears. On the S-alluvial cones in the "U-R" P. cuspidatum dominates with Clematis stans. In the "H-S-R" occurs the S. vulpina-Calamaglostis longiseta comm., and in the "A-S-R" the A. pendula-S. vulpina comm. appears. On the W-cones the striped vegetation is distinctly seen, especially in the "U-R" and the "H-S-R". and it is considered that various plants may invade into the striped pattern. From upper to lower the P. cuspidatum-C. longiseta comm., the S. vulpina-P. cuspidatum comm. and the A. pendula-S. vulpina comm. are situated in that order. 6) From statistical studies of the vegetation developing on the cones, that compositional species of the cones are very similar to the vegetation of the cliffs, but with the stabilization of the ground surface The composition becomes more dens and increases the companion which is many young trees or shrubs invading from near forest. Especialy the composition of vegetation and life form of all the plants in the "A-S-R" resemble
In the course of researches on the ecological significance of epiphytic Bryophytes the writers established the following classification of growth-from types from data obtained during detailed investigations in the following two forests in Hiroshima Pref.; 1. Beech forest (Fagus crenata-Acer Sieboldianum Community), 2. Fir-Hemlock Forest (Abies firma-Tsuga Sieboldii community), and from data obtained during brief observations in many different localities but especially in Mts. Tsubakuro, Misen, Nachi, Hyonosen, and Daisen in Honshiu District, the Kuroson National Forest in Shikoku District and Isl. Yakushima in Kiushiu District. The following classification is based on the architecture of the individual shoots, the appearance of the colony as a result of its gregarious development and further consideration was given to the relation of the sexual organs with the substratum. Each growth-form type was schematically figured, with the exception of Epiphyllous type. A growth-form type classification of epiphytic Bryophytes I. Erect and oblique type Shoots erect or oblique, sexual organs generally are formed at the top or midway shoots. a. Pulvinate type Shoots erect, forming a pulvinate colony gathered together. 1. Small cushion type ……cp Shoots not branching, growing radically upright from a central point, forming a compact, dome-shape cluster. e.g. Glyphomitrium spp. Ulota spp., Orthotrichum spp. 2. Large cushion type……Cp Length of branching shoot twice as long or longer than those, diameter of a cluster being twice as long as the "Small cushion type" e.g. leucobryum spp. 3. Turf type ……Tp Individual shoots growing upright, parallel to each other. e.g. Dicranum spp., Mnium spp. b. Fascicular and shrubby type……Fs Primary stem for creeping on substratum and the secondary stem with fascicular of shrubby forms distinguishable. e.g. Macromitrium spp., Dozya japonica, Anomodon spp. c. Dendroid type ……D Primary stem creeping on substratum, secondary stem presenting a dendroid-like form. e.g. Forsstroemia trichomitra, Thamnium spp., Dolichomitra cymbifolia. d. Feathre type Primary stem creeping on substratum, secondary stem presenting a feather form. 1. Simple feather type……Sf Leaves arranged on each side of a secondary stem which is not branched. e.g. Neckera tosaensis, Homalia spp., Plagiochila spp. 2. Branching feather type……Bf Secondary stem branching into a feather shape with branches extended on the same plane. e.g. Homaliodendron scalpellifolium, Neckera spp., Pterobryum arbuscula. II. Creeping type Primary and secondary stems creeping on the substratum, sexual organs cocuring at the position nearest to the substratum. a. Mat type……M Bryophytes forming a relatively thick and closely interwoven mat, loosely adpressed to subastratum. e.g. Thuidium spp., Entodon spp., Brachythecium spp., Hypnum spp. b. Carpet type……C Bryophytes forming a closely haired carpet, scarcelly compressed to substratum. e.g. Venturiella sinensis, Sematophyllum spp., Pylaisia spp. c. Pressed mat type All parts of the plant body adpressed to the substratum. 1. Hardly pressed mat type……Hp Plant body adpressed compactly to substratum, all parts of leaves and stems in contact with substratum. e.g. Frullania spp., Radula spp., Pycnolejeunea spp. 2. Loosely pressed mat type……Lp Plant body kept in indirectly and loosely in contact with substratum by dense rhizoides as Jungermannia spp. and Plectocolea spp. (see text fig. Lp, b). Some species of this type are kept in contact with the humus matter on the bark as Trichocoleopsis succulata (see text fig. Lp, a). 3. Epiphyllous type……E Plant body is compactly adpressed to the surface of leaves of evergreen broad-leaved trees. e.g. Leptocolea spp., Leptolejeunea subacuta. III Pendulous type……P Shoots hang down from the base of attachment on substratum, sexual organs found on shoots which are separated from substratum, e.g. Meteorium spp., Chrysocladium retrorsum, Barbella spp. Aerobryopsis subdiver
Geologically and geographically, the plain of Takamatsu is consisted of three parts : alluvial low land, diluvial upland and hills of granite, and a good number of ponds are distributed in each part. From 31 ponds of them, materials of planktons were collected, and the distribution of desmids has been studied. In the low land, the bed of ponds is consisted of new marine deposits of blue mud, and their waters are somehwat brackish probably considering from the fact that they contain the considerable amount of chlor-ion gradually supplied from their beds. In these ponds the occurrence of desmids was either absent or very scanty. As to the ponds in hill-part and upland, more number of desmids both in species and in individuals have been found in the eutrophic ponds rather than in the oligotrophic ones. It is generally said that desmids are fond of the oligotrophic pond. This unexpected result seems to depend upon the age of pond-water rather than whether being eutrophic or oligotrophic. It has been also believed that ponds with a lot of desmids are generally low in calciumion. But in this district some of these ponds, low in calcium-ion, were frequently absent or scanty in desmids and had water-blooms caused by Voluox microcystis, etc., presumably to the richness in nitrate and phosphate compounds.
On the Pacific side of Japan, the northern limits of the evergreen broad leaved forest dominated by Shiia Sieboldii occur at a coastal hill about 20 km northeast of Taira City, Fukushima Prefecture (37°10′N.L.). In the northern limits the annual mean temperature is slightly higher than 12℃ and the montyly mean temperature of the coldest month (January) is 2℃. The 2℃ isothermal line of the monthly mean temperature of January falls nearly on the northern limits of the forest of Shiia Sieboldii. Two types are distinguished among the climax forests of Shiia Sieboldii ; one is the Shiia Sieboldii-Machilus Thunbergii Community in coastal sites and the other the Shiia Sieboldii-Cyclobalanopsis myrsinaefolia Community in inland sites. These climax forests, at present, remain scattered as residual ones on undisturbed sites. Owing to clearing and fire a greater part of the climax forest of Shiia Sieboldii has degenerated into the secondary one of Pinus Thunbergii ; of P. densiflora and of Quercus serrata-Castanea crenata.
1) In this paper are described a sociological study on the sturcture and floristic composition of epiphyte communities consisting of lichens, bryophytes and vascular epiphytes, which communities range from the trunk-bases to the uppermost part of crowns of beech trees (Fagus crenata BLUME) in the beech forests growing on about 860-1160 m alt. of Mt. Hiko, Japan. 2) Sample-trees, on which epiphyte communities developed, were chosen 29 ; 10 (No. 16-25) growing on the peak, 7 (No. 4,8,9,11,13-15) on ridges, 8 (No. 1-3,5-7,10,12) on slopes and 4 (No. 26-29) in a ravine. The investigations were taken place in the summers of 1952 and 1953 by using frames of quadrat, according to CAIN's method with the minimal area and minimum number of quadrat. A number of frames were laid on epiphyte communities from the trunk-bases to the crowns. 3) We recognized 5^* epilias of epiphyte communities (Table 2) which grow on the beech trees in the forests ; the Thuidium cymbifolia-Homaliodendron scalpellifolium epilia, the pterobryum arbusculla-Anomodon Giraldii epilia, the Graphis sp. 1-Pertusaria sp. 1 epilia, the Cetraria collata f. nuda-Boulaya Mittenii epilia and the Ulota crispa-Pertusaria sp. 2 epilia. 4) No vascular epiphyte predominates over lichens and bryophytes in any epiphyte community, so that vascular epiphytes are usually subordinate to bryophytes and lichens on the trees in the forests.
Akkeshi has been well known as the place where Salicornia europaea grows in Japan. The present research was undertaken in last autumn. Salicornia europaea is found on the salt marshes along the lake-side where half salt-water are flooded at high tide. Its communities are found in the natural or the seminatural conditions near the water-ways. which were made in oder to moor boats. The component of its communities are shown in the tables 1-4 and figures 1-3. Salicornia europaea grows between 5 and 20 m from the line of water's edge. Sometimes it is found in isoletion, sometimes in small groups, and sometimes forming the narrow belt on the sand bar. One of the largest communities is about 20 m long and 10 m wide. Salicornia europaea is often associated by Aster tripolium or Triglochin maritimum. The line-transects were made along the water's edge of Lake Akkeshi and also in several places which meet the line of water's edge at right angle.
The disjunctive distribution is the important and interesting problem of phytogeography. The flowering plants here treated represent 120 species belonging to 35 families. From the view point of the distribution-area, they are divided into ten groups, the number and percentage of the species of each group being as follows : [table] The south-western part of Hokkiado occupies the leading place for the Japanese and the Japanese-Chinese elements distributied in the temperate region. The coastal district of Prov. Hidaka also plays rather an important role for these elements. In the central part of Hokkaido, the mountains extending from north-north-west to south-south-east form the back bone of Hokkaido. The alpine plants of the Japanese element occur from south of the middle part ; they are Arenaria Katoana, Draba japonica, Alchemilla japonica Pedicularis apodochila and Anaphalis alpicola. They all occur in the mountains of various pretertiary rocks. It is very interesting that the peaks of the Daisetsu mountain group present good examples of the disjunctive distribution of the wide ranging arctic-alpine plants. As the Northern Pacific element are there Gentiana glauca, Taraxacum Chamissonis, Deschampsia pacifica and Juncus triglumis ; as the Pacific elements Minuartia macrocarpa, Gentiana algida and Artemisia trifurcata ; and as the Circumpolar elements Stellaria borealis, Pedicularis Oederi, Pedicularis verticillata, Sparganium hyperboreum, Phleum alpinum, Carex bipartita, Carex livida, Juncus castaneus and Juncus triglumis. The eastern part of Hokkaido is remarkable for the Eastern Asiatic and the Eurasiatic elements. As the Eastern Asiatic elements there are Chosenia bracteosa, Betula davurica and Rhododendron parvifolium, Urtica angustifolia ; and as the Eurasiatic elements there are Artemisia laciniata, Chrysanthemum vulgare, Sagittaria natans, Carex cyperoides, Herminium Monorchis and Gymnadenia conopsea.
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