Evaluation of the interaction between the electromagnetic waves, radiated by mobile communications, broadcast, medical applications, and so forth, and the human body is indispensable. The interaction is generally estimated by numerical calculations and experimental evaluations. In these evaluations, biological tissue-equivalent phantoms, which are adjusted to have the same dielectric constants as human tissue, are generally used. Until now, various investigations have studied the phantoms. However, most of these studies have focused on the phantom for the very high frequency band (VHF) and above. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a multi-layered (muscle, fat and skin) tissue-equivalent phantom in the high frequency (HF) band.
A conventional model to determine network coding (NC) aware minimum cost routes, for employing 1+1 protection in scenarios with two sources and a common destination (2S-D), was addressed. When the common destination’s node degree is only two, NC cannot be employed, because failure of an adjacent link carrying original data restricts recovery operation at the destination. This letter presents a mathematical model for optimum NC aware 1+1 protection routing in 2S-D scenarios with destination’s node degree ≥2. Numerical results observe that our presented model achieves 5.5% of resource saving, compared to the conventional model, in our examined networks.
In this paper, we propose a dynamic Quality of Experience (QoE)-aware live streaming algorithm by utilizing client clustering and similarity metrics. Encoding scheme of the proposed system finds a sufficient bitrate of the video and creates quality levels adapted to the distribution of clients’ bandwidth to improve overall average of user’s QoE. We show that the proposed system can improve structural similarity method (SSIM) performance when the client’s bandwidth is distributed in low or middle bandwidth, and decreases the number of clients who stop play back.
At dynamic wavelength allocation (DWA) to optical network units (ONUs) in wavelength-tunable (λ-tunable) wavelength-division-multiplexing/time-division-multiplexing-passive optical networks (WDM/TDM-PONs), consistency between the start time of the wavelength tuning and the upstream grants that are already allocated must be considered. This paper proposes a DWA method that is fully consistent with the dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA) grant. By inserting a non-allocation period in which the upstream burst signals are halted from reaching the optical line terminal (OLT), the proposed method achieves consistency in a simple manner on the OLT side. Theoretical evaluation shows that the proposed DWA method is suited to λ-tuning for load balancing among the optical subscriber units.